Hamro dharma

Upanishad, Aitareya-Âranyaka

AITAREYA-ÂRANYAKA.

FIRST ÂRANYAKA.

FIRST ADHYÂYA.

FIRST KHANDA.

1. Now follows the Mahâvrata ceremony.

2. After having killed Vritra, Indra became great. When he became great, then there was the Mahâvrata (the great work). This is why the Mahâvrata ceremony is called Mahâvrata.

3. Some people say: ‘Let the priest make two (recitations with the offering of the) âgya (ghee) on that day,’ but the right thing is one 1.

4. He who desires prosperity should use the hymn, pra vo devâyâgnaye (Rv. III, 13, 1).

5. He who desires increase should use the hymn, viso viso atithim (Rv. VIII, 74, 1).

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6. The people (visah) indeed are increase 1, and therefore he (the sacrificer) becomes increased.

7. But (some say), there is the word atithim (in that hymn, which means a guest or stranger, asking for food). Let him not therefore take that hymn. Verily, the atithi (stranger) is able 2 to go begging.

8. ‘No,’ he said, ‘let him take that hymn.

9. ‘For he who follows the good road and obtains distinction, he is an atithi (guest) 3.

10. ‘They do not consider him who is not so, worthy to be (called) an atithi (guest).

11. ‘Therefore let him by all means take that hymn.’

12. If he takes that hymn, let him place the (second) tristich, âganma vritrahantamam, ‘we came near to the victorious,’ first.

13. For people worship the whole year (performing the Gavâmayana sacrifice) wishing for this day (the last but one)–they do come near.

14. The (next following) three tristichs begin with an Anushtubh 4. Now Brahman is Gâyatrî, speech is Anushtubh. He thus joins speech with Brahman.

15. He who desires glory should use the hymn, abodhy agnih samidhâ ganânâm (Rv. V, 1, 1).

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16. He who desires offspring and cattle should use the hymn, hotâganishta ketanah (Rv. II, 5, 1).


Footnotes

157:1 That it should be one only is proved from the types, i. e. from other sacrifices, that have to be followed in the performance of the Mahâvrata. The first type is the Agnishtoma, where one sastra is enjoined as âgyasastra, viz. pra vo devâyâgnaye. In the Visvagit, which has to follow the Agnishtoma, another hymn is put in its place, viz. agnim naro dîdhitibhih. In the Mahâvrata, which has to follow the Visvagit, some people recommend the use of both these hymns. But that is wrong, for there must be in the sacrifices which follow the Agnishtoma twelve sastras altogether; and if there were two here, instead of one, we should get a total of thirteen.

158:1 The word visah, which occurs in the hymn, means people. The commentator says that because the Vaisyas or tradespeople increase their capital, therefore they are called increase.

158:2 Able, or liable; cf. Ait. Âr. II, 3, 5, 7.

158:3 Atithi is here explained by yo bhavati, and bhavati is explained as walking on the good road. One expects yo vâ atati. The obtaining of distinction is probably derived from ati, above, in atithi.

158:4 In the first and second the Anushtubh is followed by two Gâyatrîs.

SECOND KHANDA.

1. He who desires proper food 1 should use the hymn, agnim naro dîdhitibhih (Rv. VII, 1, 1) 2.

2. Verily, Agni (fire) is the eater of food.

In the other (recitations accompanying the) offerings of âgya (where Agni is likewise mentioned) the worshippers come more slowly near to Agni (because the name of Agni does not stand at the beginning of the hymn). But here a worshipper obtains proper food at once, he strikes down evil at once.

3. Through the words (occurring in the second foot of the first verse), hastakyuti ganayanta, ‘they caused the birth of Agni by moving their arms,’ the hymn becomes endowed with (the word) birth. Verily, the sacrificer is born from this day of the sacrifice, and therefore the hymn is endowed with (the word) birth.

4. There are four metrical feet (in the Trishtubh verses of this hymn). Verily, cattle have four feet, therefore they serve for the gaining of cattle.

5. There are three metrical feet (in the Virâg, verses of this hymn). Verily, three are these three-fold

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worlds. Therefore they serve for the conquest of the worlds.

6. These (the Trishtubh and Virâg verses of the hymn) form two metres, which form a support (pratishthâ). Verily, man is supported by two (feet), cattle by four feet. Therefore this hymn places the sacrificer who stands on two feet among cattle which stand on four.

7. By saying them straight on there are twenty-five verses in this hymn. Man also consists of twenty-five. There are ten fingers on his hands, ten toes on his feet, two legs, two arms, and the trunk (âtman) the twenty-fifth. He adorns that trunk, the twenty-fifth, by this hymn.

8. And then this day (of the sacrifice) consists of twenty-five, and the Stoma hymn of that day consists of twenty-five 1 (verses); it becomes the same through the same. Therefore these two, the day and the hymn, are twenty-five 2.

9. These twenty-five verses, by repeating the first thrice and the last thrice, become thirty less one. This is a Virâg, verse (consisting of thirty syllables), too small by one. Into the small (heart) the vital spirits are placed, into the small stomach food is placed 3, therefore this Virâg, small by one, serves for the obtainment of those desires.

10. He who knows this, obtains those desires.

11. The verses (contained in the hymn agnim naro dîdhitibhih) become the Brihatî 4 metre and

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the Virâg metre, (they become) the perfection which belongs to that day (the mahâvrata). Then they also become Anushtubh 1, for the offerings of âgya (ghee) dwell in Anushtubhs 2.


Footnotes

159:1 Annâdyam is always explained as food, here as annam tad âdyam ka. It must be so translated here and elsewhere (1, 2, 10), though it is often an abstract of annâda, an eater of food, a healthy man.

159:2 This hymn is prescribed in the Visvagit sacrifice, and taken over to the Mahâvrata, according to rule. It is used, however, both as obligatory and as optional at the same time, i. e. it is an essential part of the sacrifice, and at the same time to be used by those who wish for proper food.

160:1 Cf. Ait. Âr. I, 1, 4, 21; II, 3, 4, 2.

160:2 The plural after the dual is explained by the fact that the hymn means the twenty-five verses.

160:3 Cf. I, 3, 7, 5.

160:4 The hymn consists of eighteen Virâg and seven Trishtubh p. 161 verses. Therefore the eighteen Virâg verses remain what they are, only that the first is repeated three times, so that we have twenty Virâg verses. The seven Trishtubhs, by repeating the last three times, become nine. We then take eight syllables away from each verse, thus changing them into nine Brihatî verses. The nine times eight syllables, which were taken off, give us seventy-two syllables, and as each Brihatî consists of thirty-six syllables, two Brihatîs.

161:1 The change of the first verse, which is a Virâg of thirty-three syllables, into an Anushtubh is produced by a still easier process. The first Virâg consists here of thirty-three syllables, the Anushtubh should have thirty-two. But one or two syllables more or less does not destroy a metre, according to the views of native metricians. The Virâg itself, for instance, should have thirty syllables, and here has thirty-three. Therefore if changed into an Anushtubh, it simply has one syllable over, which is of no consequence. Comm.

161:2 Cf. Ait. Âr. I, 1, 1, 4.

THIRD KHANDA 3.

1. Some say: ‘Let him take a Gâyatrî hymn for the Pra-uga. Verily, Gâyatrî is brightness and glory of countenance, and thus the sacrificer becomes bright and glorious.’

2. Others say: ‘Let him take a Ushnih hymn for the Pra-uga. Verily, Ushnih is life, and thus the sacrificer has a long life.’

Others say: ‘Let him take an Anushtubh hymn

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for the Pra-uga. Verily, Anushtubh is valour, and it serves for obtaining valour.’

Others say: ‘Let him take a Brihatî hymn for the Pra-uga. Verily, Brihatî is fortune, and thus the sacrificer becomes fortunate.’

Others say: ‘Let him take a Pankti hymn for the Pra-uga. Verily, Pankti is food, and thus the sacrificer becomes rich in food.’

Others say: ‘Let him take a Trishtubh hymn for the Pra-uga. Verily, Trishtubh is strength, and thus the sacrificer becomes strong.’

Others say: ‘Let him take a Gagatî hymn for the Pra-uga. Verily, cattle is Gagatî-like, and thus the sacrificer becomes rich in cattle.’

But we say: ‘Let him take a Gâyatrî hymn only. Verily, Gâyatrî is Brahman, and that day (the mahâvrata) is (for the attainment of) Brahman. Thus he obtains Brahman by means of Brahman.

4. ‘And it must be a Gâyatrî hymn by Madhukkhandas,

5. ‘For Madhukkhandas is called Madhukkhandas, because he wishes (khandati) for honey (madhu) for the Rishis.

6. ‘Now food verily is honey, all is honey, all desires are honey, and thus if he recites the hymn of Madhukkhandas, it serves for the attainment of all desires.

7. ‘He who knows this, obtains all desires.’

This (Gâyatrî pra-uga), according to the one-day (ekâha) ceremonial 1, is perfect in form 2. On that day (the mahâvrata) much is done now and then which

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has to be hidden 1, and has to be atoned for y recitation of hymns). Atonement (sânti) is rest, the one-day sacrifice. Therefore at the end of the year (on the last day but one of the sacrifice that lasts a whole year) the sacrificers rest on this atonement as their rest.

8. He who knows this rests firm, and they also for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites this hymn.


Footnotes

161:3 Thus far the hymn which has to be recited by the Hotri priest, after the eating of the ritugrabas, has been considered. What follows next is the so-called Pra-uga hymn, consisting of seven trikas, which the Hotri has to recite after the Visvedevagraha. Different Sâkhâs recommend hymns of different metres, our Sâkhâ fixes on the Gâyatrî.

162:1 It is copied from the Visvagit, and that from the Agnishtoma.

162:2 Nothing is wanting for its performance, if one only follows the rules given in the Agnishtoma.

163:1 Dâsînritya-bahubhûtamaithuna-brahmakâripumskalîsampravâ-dâdikam. See Rajendralal Mitra, Introduction to his edition of the Aitareya-âranyaka, p. 25. It might be better to join ekâhah with sântyâm, but even then the argumentation is not quite clear.

FOURTH KHANDA 2.

1. Rv. I, 2, 1-3. Vâyav â yâhi darsateme somâ aram krih, ‘Approach, O Vâyu, conspicuous, these Somas have been made ready.’ Because the word ready occurs in these verses, therefore is this day (of the sacrifice) ready (and auspicious) for the sacrificer and for the gods.

2. Yes, this day is ready (and auspicious) to him who knows this, or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites.

3. Rv. I, 2, 4-6. Indravâyû ime sutâ, â yâtam upa nishkritam, ‘Indra and Vâyu, these Somas are prepared, come hither towards what has been prepared.’ By nishkrita, prepared, he means what has been well prepared (samskrita).

4. Indra and Vâyu go to what has been prepared by him who knows this, or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites.

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5. Rv. I, 2, 7. Mitram huve pûtadaksham, dhiyam ghritâkîm sâdhantâ, ‘I call Mitra of holy strength; (he and Varuna) they fulfil the prayer accompanied with clarified butter.’ Verily, speech is the prayer accompanied with clarified butter.

6. Speech is given to him who knows this, or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites.

7. Rv. I, 3, 1. Asvinâ yagvarîr ishah, ‘O Asvinau, (eat) the sacrificial offerings.’ Verily, the sacrificial offerings are food, and this serves for the acquirement of food.

8. Rv. I, 3, 3. Â yâtam rudravartanî, ‘Come hither, ye Rudravartanî.’

9. The Asvinau go to the sacrifice of him who knows this, or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites.

10. Rv. I, 3, 4-6. Indrâ yâhi kitrabhâno, indrâ yâhi dhiyeshitah, indrâ yâhi tûtugâna, ‘Come hither, Indra, of bright splendour, Come hither, Indra, called by prayer, Come hither, Indra, quickly!’ Thus he recites, Come hither, come hither!

11. Indra comes to the sacrifice of him who knows this, or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites.

12. Rv. I, 3, 7. Omâsas karshanîdhrito visve devâsa â gata, ‘Visve Devas, protectors, supporters of men, come hither!’

13. Verily, the Visve Devas come to the call of him who knows this, or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites.

14. Rv. I, 3, 7. Dâsvâmso dâsushah sutam, ‘Come ye givers to the libation of the giver!’ By dâsushah he means dadushah, i. e. to the libation of every one that gives.

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15. The gods fulfil his wish, with whatever wish he recites this verse,

16. (The wish of him) who knows this, or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites.

17. Rv. I, 3, 10. Pâvakâ nah sarasvatî yagñam vashtu dhiyâvasuh, ‘May the holy Sarasvatî accept our sacrifice, rich in prayer!’ Speech is meant by ‘rich in prayer.’

18. Speech is given to him who knows this, or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites.

19. And when he says, ‘May she accept our sacrifice!’ what he means is, ‘May she carry off our sacrifice!’

20. If these verses are recited straight on, they are twenty-one. Man also consists of twenty-one. There are ten fingers on his hands, ten toes on his feet, and the trunk the twenty-first. He adorns that trunk, the twenty-first, by this hymn 1.

21. By repeating the first and the last verses thrice, they become twenty-five. The trunk is the twenty-fifth, and Pragâpati is the twenty-fifth. There are ten fingers on his hands, ten toes on his feet, two legs, two arms, and the trunk the twenty-fifth. He adorns that trunk, the twenty-fifth, by this hymn’.

Now this day consists of twenty-five, and the Stoma hymn of that day consists of twenty-five: it becomes the same through the same. Therefore these two, the day and the hymn, are twenty-five, yea, twenty-five.

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Footnotes

163:2 Next follows a list of the verses which form the seven trikas (groups of three verses) of the Pra-uga hymn, with occasional remarks on certain words.

SECOND ADHYÂYA.

FIRST KHANDA 1.

1. The two trikas, Rv. VIII, 68, 1-3, â tvâ ratham yathotaye, and Rv. VIII, 2, 1-3, idam vaso sutam andhah, form the first (pratipad) and the second (anukara) of the Marutvatîya hymn.

2. Both, as belonging to the one-day ceremonial 2, are perfect in form. On that day much is done now and then which has to be hidden, and has to be atoned for. Atonement is rest, the one-day sacrifice. Therefore at the end of the year the sacrificers rest on this atonement as their rest. He who knows this rests firm, and they also for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites this hymn 3.

3. In the second verse of (the Pragâtha 4), indra nedîya ed ihi, pra sû tirâ sakîbhir ye ta ukthinah (Rv. VIII, 53, 5, 6), there occurs the word ukthinah, reciters of hymns 5. Verily, this day (the mahâvrata) is an uktha (hymn), and as endowed with an uktha, the form of this day is perfect.

4. In the first verse (of another Pragâtha) the word vîra, strong, occurs (Rv. I, 40, 3), and as endowed with the word vîra, strong, the form of this day is perfect.

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5. In the second verse (of another Pragâtha) the word suvîryam, strength, occurs (Rv. I. 40, 1), and as endowed with the word suvîrya, strength, the form of this day is perfect.

6. In the first verse (of another Pragâtha) the word ukthyam, to be hymned, occurs (Rv. I, 40, 5). Verily, this day is an uktha, and as endowed with an uktha, the form of this day is perfect.

7. In the (Dhayyâ) verse agnir netâ (Rv. III, 2 0, 4) the word vritrahâ, killer of Vritra, occurs. The killing of Vritra is a form (character) of Indra, this day (the mahâvrata) belongs to Indra, and this is the (perfect) form of that day.

8. In the (Dhayyâ) verse tvam soma kratubhih sukratur bhûh (Rv. I, 91, 2) the word vrishâ 1, powerful, occurs. Powerful is a form (character) of Indra, this day belongs to Indra, and this is the (perfect) form of that day.

9. In the (Dhayyâ) verse pinvanty apah (Rv. I, 64, 6) the word vâginam, endowed with food, occurs. Endowed with food is a form (character) of Indra, this day belongs to Indra, and this is the (perfect) form of that day.

10. In the same verse the word stanayantam, thundering, occurs. Endowed with thundering is a form (character) of Indra, this day belongs to Indra, and this is the (perfect) form of that day.

11. In (the Pragâtha) pra va indrâya brihate (Rv. VIII, 89, 3) (the word brihat occurs). Verily, brihat is mahat (great), and as endowed with mahat, great, the form of this day (mahâvrata) is perfect.

12. In (the Pragâtha) brihad indrâya gâyata (Rv. VIII, 89, 1)

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[paragraph continues] (the word brihat occurs). Verily, brihat is mahat (great), and as endowed with mahat, the form of this day is perfect.

13. In (the Pragâtha) nakih sudâso ratham pary âsa na rîramad (Rv. VII, 32, 10) the words paryâsa (he moved round) and na rîramad (he did not enjoy) occur, and as endowed with the words paryasta and rânti the form of this day is perfect 1.

He recites all (these) Pragâthas, in order to obtain all the days (of the sacrifice), all the Ukthas 2, all the Prishthas 3, all the Sastras 4, all the Pra-ugas 5, and all the Savanas (libations).


Footnotes

166:1 In the first adhyâya the two hymns to be recited by the Hotri priest at the morning-libation (the âgya and pra-uga sastra) have been considered. Now follows the Marutvatîya hymn, to be recited by the Hotri priest at the noon-libation.

166:2 Taken from the Agnishtoma.

166:3 Cf. I, 1, 3, 7-8.

166:4 All these Pragâthas consist of two verses expanded into a trika.

166:5 Hotrâdaya ukthinah sastrinah.

167:1 Cf. I, 2, 2, 14.

168:1 Because the performance of the Mahâvrata sacrifice moves the worshipper round to another world and gives him enjoyment. Comm. It is difficult to surpass the absurdity of these explanations. Na rîramat means no one stopped the chariot of Sudâs. But even if it meant that no one rejoiced through the chariot of Sudâs, it would be difficult to see how the negative of enjoyment, mentioned in the hymn, could contribute to the perfection of a sacrifice which is to confer positive enjoyment on the worshipper.

168:2 The stotras following after the Yagñâyagñîya Sâman, serving for the ukthya-kratus.

168:3 The stotras of the noon-libation, to be performed with the Rathantara, Brihat, and other Sâmans.

168:4 The sastras, recitations, accompanying the oblations of âgya.

168:5 The pra-ugas, a division of sastras, described above.

SECOND KHANDA 6.

1. He recites the hymn, asat su me garitah sâbhivegah (Rv. X, 27, 1), (and in. it the word) satyadhvritam, the destroyer of truth. Verily, that day

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is truth, and as endowed with the word satya, truth, the form of this day is perfect 1.

2. That hymn is composed by Vasukra. Verily, Vasukra is Brahman, and that day is Brahman. Thus he obtains Brahman by means of Brahman 2.

3. Here they say: ‘Why then is that Marutvatîya, hymn completed by the hymn of Vasukra?’ Surely because no other Rishi but Vasukra brought out a Marutvatîya hymn, or divided it properly 3. Therefore that Marutvatîya hymn is completed by the hymn of Vasukra.

4. That hymn, asat su me, is not definitely addressed to any deity, and is therefore supposed to be addressed to Pragâpati. Verily, Pragâpati is indefinite, and therefore the hymn serves to win Pragâpati.

5. Once in the hymn (Rv. X, 27, 22) he defines Indra (indrâya sunvat); therefore it does not fall off from its form, as connected with Indra.

6. He recites the hymn (Rv. VI, 17, 1) pibâ somam abhi yam ugra tardah.

7. In the verse ûrvam gavyam mahi grinâna indra the word mahi, great, occurs. Endowed with the word mahat, the form of this day is perfect.

8. That hymn is composed by Bharadvâga, and Bharadvâga was he who knew most, who lived longest, and performed the greatest austerities among the Rishis, and by this hymn he drove away evil. Therefore if he recites the hymn of Bharadvâga,

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then, after having driven away evil, he becomes learned, long-lived, and full of austerities.

9. He recites the hymn kayâ subhâ savayasah sanîlâh (Rv. I, 165, 1).

10. In the verse â sâsate prati haryanty ukthâ (Rv. I, 165, 4) the word uktha occurs. Verily, that day (the mahâvrata) is uktha (hymn). Endowed with the word uktha, the form of this day becomes perfect.

11. That hymn is called Kayâsubhîya 1. Verily, that hymn, which is called Kayâsubhîya, is mutual understanding and it is lasting. By means of it Indra, Agastya, and the Maruts came to a mutual understanding. Therefore, if he recites the Kayâsubhîya hymn, it serves for mutual understanding.

12. The same hymn is also long life. Therefore, if the sacrificer is dear to the Hotri, let him recite the Kayâsubhîya hymn for him.

13. He recites the hymn marutvân indra vrishabo ranâya (Rv. III, 47, 1).

14. In it the words indra vrishabha (powerful) occur. Verily, powerful is a form of Indra 2, this day belongs to Indra, and this is the perfect form of that day.

15. That hymn is composed by Visvâmitra. Verily, Visvâmitra was the friend (mitra) of all (visva).

16. Everybody is the friend of him who knows this, and for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites this hymn.

17. The next hymn, ganishthâ ugrah sahase turâya (Rv. I, 73, 1), forms a Nividdhâna 3, and,

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according to the one-day (ekâha) ceremonial, is perfect in form. On that day much is done now and then which has to be hidden, and has to be atoned for (by recitation of hymns). Atonement is rest, the one-day sacrifice. Therefore at the end of the year (on the last day but one of the sacrifice that lasts a whole year) the sacrificers rest on this atonement as their rest.

He who knows this rests firm, and they also for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites this hymn 1.

18. These, if recited straight on, are ninety-seven verses 2. The ninety are three Virâg, each consisting of thirty, and then the seven verses which are over. Whatever is the praise of the seven, is the praise of ninety also.

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19. By repeating the first and last verses three times each, they become one hundred and one verses.

20. There are five fingers, of four joints each, two pits (in the elbow and the arm), the arm, the eye, the shoulder-blade; this makes twenty-five. The other three parts have likewise twenty-five each 1. That makes a hundred, and the trunk is the one hundred and first.

21. Hundred is life, health, strength, brightness. The sacrificer as the one hundred and first rests in life, health, strength, and brightness.

22. These verses become Trishtubh 2, for the noonday-libation consists of Trishtubh verses.


Footnotes

168:6 The type after which the Marutvatîya-sastra is to be performed is the Katurvimsa day. Hitherto (from â tvâ ratham to nakih sudâsah), all that is taken over from the type to the modification, i. e. the Marutvatîya, has been explained. Now follow the verses which are new and peculiar to the Marutvatîya of the Mahâvrata.

169:1 The commentator endeavours to make the meaning more natural by taking in the word prahantâ, he who kills the destroyer of truth. But considering the general character of these remarks, this is hardly necessary.

169:2 Cf. I, 1, 3, 3.

169:3 By separating the first trika from the second, and so forth.

170:1 Cf. Ait. Brâhm. V, 16.

170:2 Cf. Ait. Âr. II, 2, 1, 8.

170:3 The hymn consists of eleven verses. In the middle, after the sixth verse, nivids or invocations, such as indro marutvân, are inserted, and therefore it is called a nividdhâna hymn.

171:1 With this hymn the Marutvatîya-sastra is finished. All the hymns from â tvâ ratham to asat su me garitar are simply taken over from the Katurvimsa ceremonial, the rest are peculiar to the Mahâvrata day, the day preceding the Udayanîya or final day of the Gavâmayana sattra. All this is more fully described in the fifth Âranyaka (V, 1, 1, 8), containing the Sûtras or rules of Saunaka, while the earlier Âranyakas are reckoned as Brâhmanas, and are therefore mixed up with matters not actually required for the performance of the sacrifice.

171:2

The first Stotriya and Ânurûpa trikas = 6 (I, 2, 1, 1).
The six Pragâthas, each of 2 verses raised to 3 (but the text gives seven Pragâthas) = 18 (I, 2, 1, 3; 4; 5; 6; 11; 12; 13).
Three Dhâyyâs = 3 (I, 2, 1, 7; 8; 9).
Asat su = 24 (I, 2, 2, 1).
Pibâ somam = 15 (I,2,2,6).
Kayâ subhâ = 15 (I, 2,2,9).
Marutvân indra = 5 (I, 2, 2, 13).
Ganishthâ ugrah = 11 (1, 2, 2, 17).
(TOTAL) 97

172:1 The left side as well as the right, and then the left and right side of the lower body. Thus we have twenty joints of the five toes, a thigh, a leg, and three joints, making twenty-five on each side.

172:2 Approach the Trishtubh metre of the last hymn. Comm.

THIRD KHANDA 3.

1. They say: ‘What is the meaning of prenkha, swing?’ Verily, he is the swing, who blows (the wind). He indeed goes forward (pra + inkhate) in these worlds, and that is why the swing is called prenkha.

2. Some say, that there should be one plank, because the wind blows in one way, and it should be like the wind.

3. That is not to be regarded.

4. Some say, there should be three planks, because there are these three threefold worlds, and it should be like them.

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5. That is not to be regarded.

6. Let there be two, for these two worlds (the earth and heaven) are seen as if most real, while the ether (space) between the two is the sky (antariksha). Therefore let there be two planks.

7. Let them be made of Udumbara wood. Verily, the Udumbara tree is sap and eatable food, and thus it serves to obtain sap and eatable food.

8. Let them be elevated in the middle (between the earth and the cross-beam). Food, if placed in the middle, delights man, and thus he places the sacrificer in the middle of eatable food.

9. There are two kinds of rope, twisted towards the right and twisted towards the left. The right ropes serve for some animals, the left ropes for others. If there are both kinds of rope, they serve for the attainment of both kinds of cattle.

10. Let them be made of Darbha (Kusa grass), for among plants Darbha is free from evil, therefore they should be made of Darbha grass.


Footnotes

172:3 After having considered the Marutvatîya, he proceeds to consider the Nishkevalya. This has to be recited by the Hotri while sitting on a swing.

FOURTH KHANDA.

1. Some say: ‘Let the swing be one ell (aratni) above the ground, for by that measure verily the Svarga worlds are measured.’ That is not to be regarded.

2. Others say: ‘Let it be one span (prâdesa), for by that measure verily the vital airs were measured.’ That is not to be regarded 1.

3. Let it be one fist (mushti), for by that measure verily all eatable food is made, and by that measure

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all eatable food is taken; therefore let it be one fist above the ground.

4. They say: ‘Let him mount the swing from east to west, like he who shines; for the sun mounts these worlds from east to west.’ That is not to be regarded.

5. Others say: ‘Let him mount the swing sideways, for people mount a horse sideways 1, thinking that thus they will obtain all desires.’ That is not to be regarded.

6. They say: ‘Let him mount the swing 2 from behind, for people mount a ship from behind, and this swing is a ship in which to go to heaven.’ Therefore let him mount it from behind.

7. Let him touch the swing with his chin (khubuka). The parrot (suka) thus mounts a tree, and he is of all birds the one who eats most food. Therefore let him touch it with his chin.

8. Let him mount the swing with his arms 3. The hawk swoops thus on birds and on trees, and he is of all birds the strongest. Therefore let him mount with his arms.

9. Let him not withdraw one foot (the right or left) from the earth, for fear that he may lose his hold.

10. The Hotri mounts the swing, the Udgâtri the seat made of Udumbara wood. The swing is masculine, the seat feminine, and they form a union. Thus he makes a union at the beginning of the uktha in order to get offspring.

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He who knows this, gets offspring and cattle.

12. Next the swing is food, the seat fortune. Thus he mounts and obtains food and fortune.

13. The Hotrakas (the Prasâstri, Brâhmanâkkhamsin, Potri, Neshtri, Agnâdhra, and Akkhâvâka) together with the Brahman sit down on cushions made of grass, reeds, leaves, &c.

14. Plants and trees, after they have grown up, bear fruit. Thus if the priests mount on that day altogether (on their seats), they mount on solid and fluid as their proper food. Therefore this serves for the attainment of solid as proper food 1.

15. Some say: ‘Let him descend after saying vashat 2. ‘That is not to be regarded. For, verily, that respect is not shown which is shown to one who does not see it 3.

16. Others say: ‘Let him descend after he has taken the food in his hand.’ That is not to be regarded. For, verily, that respect is not shown which is shown to one after he has approached quite close.

17. Let him descend after he has seen the food. For, verily, that is real respect which is shown to one when he sees it. Only after having actually

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seen the food (that is brought to the sacrifice), let him descend from the swing.

18. Let him descend turning towards the east, for in the east the seed of the gods springs up 1. Therefore let him rise turning towards the east, yea, turning towards the east.


Footnotes

173:1 They rise one span above the heart, and they proceed one span from out the mouth. Comm.

174:1 Here we have clearly riding on horseback.

174:2 While the swing points to the east, let him stand west, and thus mount.

174:3 The fore-arms, from the elbow to the end, the aratnî. Comm.

175:1 One expects ishah before ûrgah, but it is wanting in both text and commentary, and in other MSS. also.

175:2 The word by which the Hotri invites the Adhvaryu to offer the oblation to the gods. The descending from the swing belongs, of course, to a later part of the sacrifice.

175:3 it is supposed that the Hotri rises from the swing to show respect to the sacrificial food, when it is brought near. But as it is not brought near, immediately after the Hotri has finished his part with the word vashat, the food could not see the Hotri rise, and this mark of respect, intended for the food, would thus be lost.

176:1 Should it be devaretah sampragâyate, or devaretasam pragâyate?

THIRD ADHYÂYA.

FIRST KHANDA.

1. Let him begin this day 2 with singing ‘Him,’ thus they say.

2. Verily, the sound Him is Brahman, that day also is Brahman. He who knows this, obtains Brahman even by Brahman.

3. As he begins with the sound Him, surely that masculine sound of Him and the feminine Rik (the verse) make a couple. Thus he makes a couple at the beginning of the hymn in order to get offspring 3. He who knows this, gets cattle and offspring.

4. Or, as he begins with the sound Him, surely like a wooden spade, so the sound Him serves to dig up Brahman (the sap of the Veda). And as a man wishes to dig up any, even the hardest soil, with a spade, thus he digs up Brahman.

5. He who knows this digs up, by means of the sound Him, everything he may desire.

6. If he begins with the sound Him, that sound is the holding apart of divine and human speech.

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Therefore, he who begins, after having uttered the sound Him, holds apart divine and human speech 1.


Footnotes

176:2 The Nishkevalya-sastra, of the noon-libation; Cf. I, 2, 2, 1.

176:3 Cf. I, 2, 4, 10.

177:1 Human speech is the ordinary speech, divine speech that of the Veda. Thus between the hymns, or the divine speech, and the ordinary language of conversation the sound Him is interposed as a barrier.

SECOND KHANDA.

1. And here they ask: ‘What is the beginning of this day?’ Let him say: ‘Mind and speech 2.’

2. All desires dwell in the one (mind), the other yields all desires.

3. All desires dwell in the mind, for with the mind he conceives all desires.

4. All desires come to him who knows this.

5. Speech yields all desires, for with speech he declares all his desires.

6. Speech yields all desires to him who knows this.

7. Here they say: ‘Let him not begin this day with a Rik, a Yagus, or a Sâman verse (divine speech), for it is said, he should not start with a Rik, a Yagus, or a Sâman 3.’

8. Therefore, let him say these Vyâhritis (sacred interjections) first.

9. These interjections Bhûs, Bhuvas, Svar are the three Vedas, Bhûs the Rig-veda, Bhuvas the Yagur-veda, Svar the Sâma-veda. Therefore (by

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intercalating these) he does not begin simply with a Rik, Yagus, or Sâman verse, he does not start with a Rik, Yagus, or Sâman verse.


Footnotes

177:2 Mind, to think about the hymns which have to be recited; speech, to recite them without a flaw.

177:3 It is doubtful whether neyâd rikah and apagakkhet can have this meaning. However, what is intended is clear, viz. that the priest, even after having uttered the sound Him, should not immediately begin with verses from the Vedas, but should intercalate the three syllables bhûr bhuvah svar, or, if taken singly, bhûs, bhuvas, svar.

THIRD KHANDA.

1. He begins with tad, this, (the first word of the first hymn, tad id âsa). Verily ‘this, this’ is food, and thus he obtains food.

2. Pragâpati indeed uttered this as the first word, consisting of one or two syllables, viz. tata and tâta (or tat) 1. And thus does a child, as soon as he begins to speak, utter the word, consisting of one or two syllables, viz. tata and tâta (or tat). With this very word, consisting of tat or tatta, he begins.

3. This has been said by a Rishi (Rv. X, 71, 1) 2:–

4. ‘O Brihaspati, the first point of speech;’–for this is the first and highest point of speech.

5. ‘That which you have uttered, making it a name;’–for names are made by speech.

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6. ‘That (name) which was the best and without a flaw;’–for this is the best and without a flaw.

7. ‘That which was hidden by their love, is made manifest;’–for this was hidden in the body, viz. those deities (which enter the body, Agni as voice, entering the mouth, &c.); and that was manifest among the gods in heaven. This is what was intended by the verse.


Footnotes

178:1 Tata and tâta are used both by children in addressing their parents, and by parents in addressing their children. If tat is called the very same word, eva is used in the sense of iva.

178:2 The verse is cited to confirm the meaning of tat, the first word of the first hymn (tad id âsa), as explained before. It was said that tat was the first name applied to a child. Now, according to Âsvalâyana Grihya-sûtra I, 16, 8, a name is given to a child at the time of its birth, a name which no one knows except father and mother, till the time when he is initiated by a Guru. This is called the abhivadanîya name. In allusion to this custom it is said here that tata is the secret name of the child, which becomes publicly known at a later time only. Of course the interpretation of the verse in that sense is unnatural, but quite in keeping with the general character of the Âranyaka. I doubt whether even the commentator understood what was intended by the author, and whether the gods who enter the body are supposed to know the name, or whether the name refers to these gods, or, it may be, to tad, the Brahman.

FOURTH KHANDA 1.

1. He begins with: ‘That indeed was the oldest in the worlds 2;’–for that (the Brahman) is verily the oldest in the worlds.

2. ‘Whence was born the fierce one, endowed with brilliant force;’–for from it was born the fierce one, who is endowed with brilliant force.

3. ‘When born he at once destroys the enemies;’–for he at once when born struck down the evil one.

4. ‘He after whom all friends rejoice;’–verily all friends are the creatures, and they rejoice after him, saying, ‘He has risen, he has risen 3.’

5. ‘Growing by strength, the almighty 4;’–for he (the sun) does grow by strength, the almighty.

6. ‘He, as enemy, causes fear to the slave;’–for everything is afraid of him.

7. ‘Taking the breathing and the not-breathing;’–this means the living and the lifeless.

8. ‘Whatever has been offered at feasts came to thee;’–this means everything is in thy power.

9. ‘All turn their thought also on thee 5;’–this

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means all these beings, all minds, all thoughts also turn to thee.

10. ‘When these two become three protectors;’–i. e. when these two united beget offspring.

11. He who knows this, gets offspring and cattle.

12. ‘Join what is sweeter than sweet (offspring) with the sweet (the parents);’–for the couple (father and mother) is sweet, the offspring is sweet, and he thus joins the offspring with the couple.

13. ‘And this (the son, when married) being very sweet, conquered through the sweet;’–i. e. the couple is sweet, the offspring is sweet, and thus through the couple he conquers offspring 1.

14. This is declared by a Rishi 2: ‘Because he (Pragâpati) raised his body (the hymn tad id âsa or the Veda in general) in the body (of the sacrificer)’ (therefore that Nishkevalya hymn is praised);–i. e. this body, consisting of the Veda, in that corporeal form (of the sacrificer).

15. ‘Then let this body indeed be the medicine of that body;’–i. e. this body, consisting of the Veda, of that corporeal form (of the sacrificer).

16. Of this (the first foot of Rv. X, 120, 1) the eight syllables are Gâyatrî, the eleven syllables are Trishtubh, the twelve syllables are Gagatî, the ten syllables are Virâg. The Virâg, consisting of ten syllables, rests in these three metres 3.

17. The word purusha, consisting of three syllables, that indeed goes into the Virâg 4.

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18. Verily, these are all metres, these (Gâyatrî, Trishtubh, Gagatî) having the Virâg as the fourth. In this manner this day is complete in all metres to him who knows this.


Footnotes

179:1 He now explains the first hymn of the Nishkevalya, which is called the Râgana.

179:2 Rv. X, 120, 1.

179:3 The sun and the fire.

179:4 Rv. X, 120, 2.

179:5 Rv. X, 120, 3.

180:1 All these are purely fanciful interpretations.

180:2 Not to be found in our Sâkhâ of the Rig-veda.

180:3 These metres are obtained by a purely arbitrary counting of syllables in the hymn tadidâsa, which really consists of Trishtubh verses.

180:4 If we simply count syllables, the first and second feet of the p. 181 first verse consist of ten syllables only, the fourth of nine or ten. In order to bring them to the right number, the word purusha is to be added to what is a Virâg, i.e. to the first, the second, and fourth feet. We thus get:

tad id âsa bhuvaneshu gyeshtham pu
yato gagña ugras tveshanrimno ru
sadyo gagñâno ni rinâti satrûn
anu yam visve madanti ûmâh shah.

FIFTH KHANDA.

1. He extends these (verses) by (interpolating) the sound 1. Verily, the sound is purusha, man. Therefore every man when he speaks, sounds loud, as it were.

2. At the end of each foot of the first verse of the hymn tad id âsa, he inserts one foot of the second verse of hymn Rv. VIII, 69, nadam va odatînâm, &c. Thus the verse is to be recited as follows:

Tad id âsa bhuvaneshu gyeshtham pu
nadam va odatînâm,
Yato gagña ugras tveshanrimno ru
nadam yoyuvatînâm,
Sadyo gagñâno ni rinâti satrûn
patim vo aghnyânâm,
Anu yam visve madanti ûmâh sho
dhenûnâm ishudhyasi.

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In nadam va odatînâm (Rv. VIII, 69, 2), odati 1 are the waters in heaven, for they water all this; and they are the waters in the mouth, for they water all good food.

3. In nadam yoyuvatînâm (Rv. VIII, 69, 2), yoyuvatî are the waters in the sky, for they seem to inundate; and they are the waters of perspiration, for they seem to run continually.

4. In patim vo aghnyânâm (Rv. VIII, 69, 2), aghnyâ are the waters which spring from the smoke of fire, and they are the waters which spring from the organ.

5. In dhenûnâm ishudhyasi (Rv. VIII, 69, 2), the dhenu (cows) are the waters, for they delight all this; and ishudhyasi means, thou art food.

6. He extends a Trishtubh and an Anushtubh 2. Trishtubh is the man, Anushtubh the wife, and they make a couple. Therefore does a man, after having found a wife, consider himself a more perfect man.

7. These verses, by repeating the first three times, become twenty-five. The trunk is the twenty-fifth, and Pragâpati is the twenty-fifth 3. There are ten fingers on his hands, ten toes on his feet, two legs, two arms, and the trunk the twenty-fifth. He adorns that trunk as the twenty-fifth. Now this day consists of twenty-five, and the Stoma hymn of that day consists of twenty-five: it becomes the same

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through the same. Therefore the two, the day and the hymn, are twenty-five 1.


Footnotes

181:1 The sound, nada, is really a verse beginning with nadam, and which is interpolated after the syllables pu ru shah.

182:1 The nasal pluta on iti is explained as pâdapratîkagrahane ‘tyantamâdarârthah. Cf. Ait. Âr. II, 1, 4, 3.

182:2 Tad id âsa is a Trishtubh, nadam vah an Anushtubh.

182:3 Cf. I, 1, 2, 7; I, 1, 4, 21.

SIXTH KHANDA.

This is an exact repetition of the third khanda. According to the commentator, the third khanda was intended for the glory of the first word tad, while the sixth is intended for the glory of the whole hymn.

SEVENTH KHANDA.

1. He begins with the hymn, Tad id âsa, bhuvaneshu gyeshtham (Rv. X, 120). Verily, gyeshtha, the oldest, is mahat, great. Endowed with mahat the form of this day is perfect.

2. Then follows the hymn, Tâm su te kîrtim maghavan mahitvâ (Rv. X, 54), with the auspicious word mahitvâ.

3. Then follows the hymn, Bhûya id vavridhe vîryâya (Rv. VI, 30), with the auspicious word vîrya.

4. Then follows the hymn, Nrinâm u tvâ nritamam gobhir ukthaih (Rv. I, 51, 4), with the auspicious word uktha.

5. He extends the first two pâdas, which are too small, by one syllable (Rv. X, 120, 1 a, and Rv. VIII, 69, 2 a) 2. Into the small heart the vital spirits are placed, into the small stomach food is placed. It

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serves for the attainment of these desires. He who knows this, obtains these desires.

6. The two feet, each consisting of ten syllables (Rv. X, 120, 1 a, b), serve for the gaining of both kinds of food 1, of what has feet (animal food), and what has no feet (vegetable food).

7. They come to be of eighteen syllables each 2. Of those which are ten, nine are the prânas (openings of the body) 3, the tenth is the (vital) self. This is the perfection of the (vital) self; Eight syllables remain in each. He who knows them, obtains whatever he desires.


Footnotes

183:1 The number is obtained as follows:

1. Tad id âsa (Rv. X, 120) = 9 verses
2. Tâm su te kîrtim (Rv. X, 54) = 6 “
3. Bhûya id vavridhe vîryâya (Rv. VI, 30) = 5 “
4. Nrinâm u tvâ (Rv. I, 51, 4) = 3
  23 + 2 = 25

183:2 Cf. I, 1, 2, 9.

184:1 Because Virâg, a foot of ten syllables, is food.

184:2

Rv. X, 120, 1 a = 10
Rv. VIII, 69, 2 a= 7
Syllable pu = 1
  18

184:3 Seven in the head and two in the body; sapta vai sirshanh prânâ dvâv avâñkâv iti.

EIGHTH KHANDA.

1. He extends (these verses) by (interpolating) the sound 4. Verily, breath (prâna) is sound. Therefore every breath when it sounds, sounds loud, as it were.

2. The verse (VIII, 69, 2) nadam va odatînâm, &c., is by its syllables an Ushnih 5, by its feet an Anushtubh 6. Ushnih is life, Anushtubh, speech. He thus places life and speech in him (the sacrificer.)

3. By repeating the first verse three times, they

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become twenty-five. The trunk is the twenty-fifth, and Pragâpati is the twenty-fifth. There are ten fingers on his hands, ten toes on his feet, two legs, two arms, and the trunk the twenty-fifth. He adorns that trunk as the twenty-fifth. Now this day consists of twenty-five, and the Stoma hymn of that day consists of twenty-five: it becomes the same through the same. Therefore the two, the day and the hymn, are twenty-five. This is the twenty-fifth with regard to the body.

4. Next, with regard to the deities: The eye, the ear, the mind, speech, and breath, these five deities (powers) have entered into that person (purusha), and that person entered into the five deities. He is wholly pervaded there with his limbs to the very hairs and nails. Therefore all beings to the very insects are born as pervaded (by the deities or senses) 1.

5. This has been declared by a Rishi (Rv. X, 4, 8):–

6. ‘A thousandfold are these fifteen hymns;’–for five arise from ten 2.

7. ‘As large as heaven and earth, so large is it;’–verily, the self (gîvâtman) is as large as heaven and earth.

8. ‘A thousandfold are the thousand powers 3;’–

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by saying this the poet pleases the hymns (the senses), and magnifies them.

9. ‘As far as Brahman reaches, so far reaches speech;’–wherever there is Brahman, there is a word; and wherever there is a word, there is Brahman, this was intended.

10. The first of the hymns among all those hymns has nine verses. Verily, there are nine prânas (openings), and it serves for their benefit.

11. Then follows a hymn of six verses. Verily, the seasons are six, and it serves to obtain them.

12. Then follows a hymn of five verses. Verily’ the Pankti consists of five feet. Verily, Pankti is food, and it serves for the gaining of proper food.

13. Then follows a tristich. Three are these threefold worlds, and it serves to conquer them.

14. These verses become Brihatîs 1, that metre being immortal, leading to the world of the Devas. That body of verses is the trunk (of the bird represented by the whole sastra), and thus it is. He who knows this comes by this way (by making the verses the trunk of the bird) near to the immortal Self, yea, to the immortal Self 2.


Footnotes

184:4 Cf. I, 3, 5, 1.

184:5 Each pâda has seven syllables, the third only six; but a seventh syllable is gained by pronouncing the y as i. Comm.

184:6 Because it has four pâdas.

185:1 The commentator takes this in a different sense, explaining atra, there, as the body pervaded by the person, yet afterwards stating that all beings are born, pervaded by the senses.

185:2 The commentator explains ukthâ, hymns, as members or organs. They are the five, and they spring from the ten, i. e. from the five elements (earth, water, fire, wind, and ether), forming part of the father and mother each, and therefore called ten, or a decade. Dasatah is explained by bhûtadasakât.

185:3 The application of the senses to a thousand different objects.

186:1 Each foot of the Trishtubh has eleven syllables, to which seven are added from the Nada hymn. This gives eighteen syllables for each pâda. Two pâdas therefore give thirty-six syllables, and this is a Brihatî. In this manner the twenty-three verses of the hymns yield forty-six Brihatîs. Comm.

186:2 He obtains a birth among the gods by means of this Mahâvrata ceremonial, if performed with meditation and a right understanding of its hidden meaning.

FOURTH ADHYÂYA.

FIRST KHANDA.

1. Next comes the Sûdadohas 1 verse. Sûdadohas is breath, and thereby he joins all joints with breath.

2. Next follow the neck verses. They recite them as Ushnih, according to their metre 2.

3. Next comes (again) the Sûdadohas verse. Sûdadohas is breath, and thereby he joins all joints with breath.

4. Next follows the head. That is in Gâyatrî verses. The Gâyatrî is the beginning of all metres 3; the head the first of all members. It is in Arkavat verses (Rv. I, 7, 1-9) 4. Arka is Agni. They are nine verses. The head consists of nine pieces. He recites the tenth verse, and that is the skin and the hairs on the head. It serves for reciting one verse more than (the nine verses contained in) the Stoma 5.

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[paragraph continues] These form the Trivrit Stoma and the Gâyatrî metre, and whatever there exists, all this is produced after the production of this Stoma and this metre. Therefore the recitation of these head-hymns serves for production.

5. He who knows this, gets offspring and cattle.

6. Next comes the Sûdadohas verse. Verily, Sûdadohas is breath, and thereby he joins all joints with breath.

7. Next follow the vertebrae 1 (of the bird). These verses are Virâg (shining). Therefore man says to man, ‘Thou shinest above us;’ or to a stiff and proud man, ‘Thou carriest thy neck stiff.’ Or because the (vertebrae of the neck) run close together, they are taken to be the best food. For Virâg, is food, and food is strength.

8. Next comes the Sûdadohas verse. Sûdadohas is breath, and thereby he joins all joints with breath.


Footnotes

187:1 The Nishkevalya-sastra is represented in the shape of a bird, consisting of trunk, neck, head, vertebrae, wings, tail, and stomach. Before describing the hymns which form the neck, another hymn has to be mentioned, called Sûdadohas, which has to be recited at the end of the hymns, described before, which form the trunk. Sûdadohas is explained as ‘yielding milk,’ and because that word occurs in the verse, the verse is called Sûdadohas. It follows on the Nada verse, Rv. VIII, 69, 3. Cf. Ait. Âr. I, 5, 1, 7.

187:2 They occur in another sâkhâ, and are to be recited such as they are, without any insertions. They are given by Saunaka, Ait. Âr. V, 2, 1.

187:3 It was created from the mouth of Pragâpati.

187:4 They are called so, because the word arka occurs in them.

187:5 The chanters of the Sâma-veda make a Trivrit Stoma of this hymn, without any repetitions, leaving out the tenth verse. The reciters of the Rig-veda excel them therefore by reciting a tenth verse. This is called atisamsanam (or -nâ).

188:1 Vigavas may be a singular, and the commentator seems to take it as such in his first explanation. The text, tâ virâgo bhavanti, proves nothing, because it could not be sa virâgo bhavanti, nor even sa virâd bhavati. Possibly the word may occur in both forms, vigu, plural vigavah, and vigavah. In a somewhat similar way we find grîvâ and grîvâh, folia and la feuille. On p. 109, the commentator speaks of vigavabhâga, and again, p. 110, pakshamûlarûpâ vigavâ abhihitâh. He, however, explains its meaning rightly, as the root of the wings, or rather the lower bones of the neck. Grîvâh, plural, were originally the vertebrae of the neck. The paragraph, though very empty, contains at least some interesting forms of language. First vigu, vertebrae, then the participles duta and sambâlhatama, and lastly the verb pratyak, the last probably used in the sense of to bring near, to represent, with the superlative adverb annatamâm (Pân. V, 4, 11), i. e. they are represented as if they brought the best food.

SECOND KHANDA.

1. Next follows the right wing. It is this world (the earth), it is this Agni, it is speech, it is the Rathantara 1, it is Vasishtha, it is a hundred 2. These are the six powers (of the right wing) 3. The Sampâta hymn (Rv. IV, 20) serves indeed for obtaining desires and for firmness. The Pankti verse (Rv. I, 80, 1) serves for proper food.

2. Next comes the Sûdadohas verse. Sûdadohas is breath, thereby he joins all joints with breath.

3. Next follows the left wing. It is that world (heaven), it is that sun, it is mind, it is the Brihat, it

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a, it is a hundred 1. These are the six powers (of the left wing). The Sampâta hymn (Rv. IV, 23) serves indeed for obtaining desires and for firmness. The Pankti verse (Rv. I, 81, 1) serves for proper food.

4. These two (the right and the left wings) are deficient and excessive 2. The Brihat (the left wing) is man, the Rathantara (the right wing) is woman. The excess belongs to the man, the deficiency to the woman. Therefore they are deficient and excessive.

5. Now the left wing of a bird is verily by one feather better, therefore the left wing is larger by one verse.

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6. Next comes the Sûdadohas verse. Sûdadohas is breath, and thereby he joins all joints with breath.

7. Next follows the tail. They are twenty-one Dvipadâ verses 1. For there are twenty-one backward feathers in a bird.

8. Then the Ekavimsa is the support of all Stomas, and the tail the support of all birds 2.

9. He recites a twenty-second verse. This is made the form of two supports. Therefore all birds support themselves on their tail, and having supported themselves on their tail, they fly up. For the tail is a support.

10. He (the bird and the hymn) is supported by two decades which are Virâg. The man (the sacrificer) is supported by the two Dvipadâs, the twenty first and twenty-second. That which forms the bird serves for the attainment of all desires; that which forms the man, serves for his happiness, glory, proper food, and honour.

11. Next comes a Sûdadohas verse, then a Dhayyâ, then a Sûdadohas verse. The Sûdadohas is a man, the Dhayyâ a woman, therefore he recites the Dhayyâ as embraced on both sides by the Sûdadohas. Therefore does the seed of both, when it is effused, obtain oneness, and this with regard to the

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woman only. Hence birth takes place in and from the woman. Therefore he recites that Dhayyâ in that place 1.


Footnotes

189:1 Rathantara is the name of the whole number of hymns to be recited at this part of the sacrifice. It was made by Vasishtha, and consists of one hundred verses.

189:2

1. Stotriya, abhi tvâ sûra nonumah (Rv. VII, 32, 22) 2 (3)
2. Anurûpa, abhi tvâ pûrvapîtaye (Rv. VIII, 3, 7) 2 (3)
3. Indrasya nu (Rv. I, 32) 15
4. Tve ha (Rv. VII, 18, 1-15) 15
5. Yas tigma (Rv. VII. 19) 11
6. Ugro gagñe (Rv. VII, 20) 10
7. Ud u (Rv. VII, 23) 6
8. Â te mahah (Rv. VII, 25) 6
9. Na somah (Rv. VII, 26) 5
10. Indram narah (Rv. VII, 27) 5
11. Brahmâ nah (Rv. VII, 28) 5
12. Ayam somah (Rv. VII, 29) 5
13. Â na indrah (Rv. IV, 20) 11
  98 (100)
14. Itthâ hi (Rv. I, 80, 1) 1
  99 (101)

 

These hymns and verses are given Ait. Âr. V, 2, 2, 1. Here we also learn that hymn Rv. IV, 20, is called Sampâta, and that the last verse is a Pankti.

189:3 The six powers are earth, Agni, speech, Rathantara, Vasishtha, and a hundred.

190:1 The hundred verses are given Ait. Âr. V, 2, 2, 5.

1. Stotriya, tvâm id dhi (Rv. VI, 46, 1) 2 (3)
2. Anurûpa, tvam hy ehi (Rv. VIII, 61, 7) 2 (3)
3. Tam u shtuhi (Rv. VI, 18) 15
4. Suta it tvam (Rv. VI, 23) 10
5. Vrishâ madah (Rv. VI, 24) 10
6. Yâ ta ûtih (Rv. VI, 25) 9
7. Abhûr ekah (Rv. VI, 31) 5
8. Apûrvyâ (Rv. VI, 32) 5
9. Ya ogishthah (Rv. VI, 33) 5
10. Sam ka tve (Rv. VI, 34) 5
11. Kadâ bhuvan (Rv. VI, 35) 5
12. Satrâ madâsah (Rv. VI, 36) 5
13. Arvâg ratham (Rv. VI, 37) 5
14. Apâd (Rv. VI, 38) 5
15. Kathâ mahân (Rv. IV, 23) 1
  99 (101)
16. Indro madâya (Rv. I, 81, 1) 1
  100 (102)

 

Though there are said to be 100 verses before the Pankti (No. 16), I can get only 99 or 101. See the following note.

190:2 The right wing, is deficient by one verse, the left wing exceeds by one verse. I count 99 or 101 verses in the right, and 100 or 102 in the left wing.

191:1 These verses are given Ait. Âr. V, 2, 2, 9.

1. Imâ nu kam (Rv. X, 157) 5
2. Â yâhi (Rv. X, 172) 4
3. Pra va indrâya &c. (not in the Sâkalya-samhitâ) 9
4. Esha brahmâ &c. (not in the Sâkalya-samhitâ) 3
  21

 

191:2 The other Stomas of the Agnishtoma are the Trivrit, Pañkadasa, Saptadasa, the Ekavimsa being the highest. Cf. I, 5, 1, 3.

THIRD KHANDA.

1. He recites the eighty tristichs of Gâyatrîs 2. Verily, the eighty Gâyatrî tristichs are this world (earth). Whatever there is in this world of glory, greatness, wives, food, and honour, may I obtain it, may I win it, may it be mine.

2. Next comes the Sûdadohas verse. Sûdadohas verily is breath. He joins this world with breath.

3. He recites the eighty tristichs of Brihatîs. Verily, the eighty Brihatî tristichs are the world of the sky. Whatever there is in the world of the sky of glory, greatness, wives, food, and honour, may I obtain it, may I win it, may it be mine.

4. Next comes the Sûdadohas verse. Sûdadohas verily is breath. He joins the world of the sky with breath.

5. He recites the eighty tristichs of Ushnih. Verily, the eighty Ushnih tristichs are that world, the heaven. Whatever there is in that world of glory, greatness, wives, food, and honour, also the divine being of the Devas (Brahman), may I obtain it, may I win it, may it be mine.

6. Next comes the Sûdadohas verse. Sûdadohas verily is the breath. He joins that world with breath, yea, with breath.


Footnotes

192:1 Asmin vigavabhâge. Comm.

192:2 These and the following verses form the food of the bird. Comm. The verses themselves are given by Saunaka in the fifth Âranyaka.

FIFTH ADHYÂYA.

FIRST KHANDA.

1. He recites the Vasa hymn 1, wishing, May everything be in my power.

2. They (its verses) are twenty-one 2, for twenty-one are the parts (the lungs, spleen, &c.) in the belly.

3. Then the Ekavimsa is verily the support of all Stomas, and the belly the support of all food.

4. They consist of different metres. Verily, the intestines are confused, some small, some large.

5. He recites them with the pranava 3, according to the metre 4, and according to rule 5. Verily, the intestines are according to rule, as it were; some shorter, some longer.

6. Next comes the Sûdadohas verse. Sûdadohas verily is breath. He joins the joints; with breath.

7. After having recited that verse twelve times he

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leaves it off there. These prânas are verily twelvefold, seven in the head, two on the breast, three below. In these twelve places the prânas are contained, there they are perfect. Therefore he leaves it off there 1.

8. The hymn indrâgnî yuvam su nah (Rv. VIII, 40) forms the two thighs (of the bird) belonging to Indra and Agni, the two supports with broad bones.

9. These (verses) consist of six feet, so that they may stand firm. Man stands firm on two feet, animals on four. He thus places man (the sacrificer), standing on two feet, among four-footed cattle.

10. The second verse has seven feet, and he makes it into a Gâyatrî and Anushtubh. Gâyatrî is Brahman, Anushtubh is speech; and he thus puts together speech with Brahman.

11. He recites a Trishtubh at the end. Trishtubh is strength, and thus does he come round animals by strength. Therefore animals come near where there is strength (of command, &c.); they come to be roused and to rise up, (they obey the commands of a strong shepherd.)


Footnotes

193:1 Having recited the verses which form the body, neck, head, wings, and tail of the bird, also the food intended for the bird, he now describes the Vasa hymn, i.e. the hymn composed by Vasa, Rv. VIII, 46. That hymn takes the place of the stomach which receives the food intended for the bird. Cf. Ait. Âr. V, 2, 5. In I, 5, 2, 4 it is called a Nivid.

193:2 Verses 1-20 of the Vasa hymn, and one Sûdadohas.

193:3 Pranâvam means ‘with pranava,’ i.e. inserting Om in the proper places.

193:4 According as the metres of the different verses are fixed by Saunaka, Ait. Âr. V, 2, 5, who says that verse 15 is Dvipadâ, and that the last four words, nûnam atha, form an Ekapadâ.

193:5 According to rule, i.e. so that they should come right as Âsvalâyana has prescribed the recitation of Dvipadâ and Ekapadâ verses. In a Dvipadâ there should be a stop after the first foot, and Om at the end o f the second. Ira an Ekapadâ there should be Om at the beginning and at the end.

SECOND KHANDA.

1. When he recites the Nishkevalya hymn addressed to Indra (Rv. X, 50), pra vo mahe, he inserts a Nivid 2 (between the fourth and fifth verses). Thus he clearly places strength in himself (in the sastra, in the bird, in himself).

2. They are Trishtubhs and Gagatîs.

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3. There they say: ‘Why does he insert a Nivid among mixed Trishtubhs and Gagatîs 1?’ But surely one metre would never support the Nivid of this day, nor fill it: therefore he inserts the Nivid among mixed Trishtubhs and Gagatîs.

4. Let him know that this day has three Nivids: the Vasa hymn is a Nivid, the Vâlakhilyas 2 are a Nivid, and the Nivid itself is a Nivid. Thus let him know that day as having three Nivids.

5. Then follow the hymns vane na vâ (Rv. X, 29) and yo gâta eva (Rv. II, 12). In the fourth verse of the former hymn occur the words anne samasya yad asan manîshâh, and they serve for the winning of proper food.

6. Then comes an insertion. As many Trishtubh and Gagatî verses 3, taken from the ten Mandalas and addressed to Indra, as they insert (between the two above-mentioned hymns), after changing them into Brihatîs, so many years do they live beyond the (usual) age (of one hundred years). By this insertion age is obtained.

7. After that he recites the Saganîya hymn, wishing that cattle may always come to his offspring.

8. Then he recites the Târkshya hymn 4. Târkshya is verily welfare, and the hymn leads to welfare. Thus (by reciting the hymn) he fares well 5.

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9. Then he recites the Ekapadâ (indro visvam vi râgati), wishing, May I be everything at once, and may I thus finish the whole work of metres 1.

10. In reciting the hymn indram visvâ avivridhan (Rv. I, 11) he intertwines the first seven verses by intertwining their feet 2. There are seven prânas (openings) in the head, and he thus places seven prânas in the head. The eighth verse (half-verse) he does not intertwine 3. The eighth is speech, and he thinks, May my speech never be intertwined with the other prânas. Speech therefore, though dwelling in the same abode as the other prânas, is not intertwined with them.

11. He recites the Virâg verses 4. Verily, Virâg verses are food, and they thus serve for the gaining of food.

12. He ends with the hymn of Vasishtha 5, wishing, May I be Vasishtha!

13. But let him end with the fifth verse, esha stomo maha ugrâya vâhe, which, possessing the word mahat, is auspicious.

14. In the second foot of the fifth verse the word dhuri occurs. Verily, dhuh (the place where the horse is fastened to the car) is the end (of the car). This day also is the end (of the sacrifice which lasts a whole year) 6. Thus the verse is fit for the day.

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15. In the third foot the word arka is auspicious.

16. The last foot is: ‘Make our glory high as heaven over heaven.’ Thus wherever Brahmanic speech is uttered, there his glory will be, when he who knows this finishes with that verse. Therefore let a man who knows this, finish (the Nishkevalya) with that verse.


Footnotes

194:1 He repeats the Sûdadohas verse no more. Comm.

194:2 Sentences like indro devah somam pibatu.

195:1 According to the Prakriti of the Agnishtoma they ought to be all Trishtubhs. Comm.

195:2 These hymns occur in the eighty Brihatî tristichs.

195:3 From the Samhitâ, which consists of ten thousand verses. Comm.

195:4 Rv. X, 178. Târksha Garuda being the deity of the hymn, it is called Târkshya.

195:5 Cf. I, 5, 3, 13

196:1 The Ekapadâ forms the last metre in this ceremony.

196:2 The first and last half-verses of the hymn are not to be intertwined. Of the remaining fourteen half-verses he joins, for instance, the fourth foot of the first verse with the second foot of the second verse, and so on. Comm.

196:3 Because nothing more follows. Comm.

196:4 Rv. VII, 22, 1-6.

196:5 Rv. VII, 24.

196:6 The last day is the udayanîyâtirâtra. Comm.

THIRD KHANDA 1.

1. Tat savitur vrinîmahe (Rv. V, 82, 1-3) and adyâ no deva savitar (Rv. V, 82, 4-6) are the beginning (pratipad) and the next step (anukara) of the Vaisvadeva hymn, taken from the Ekâha ceremonial and therefore proper 2.

2. On that day 3 much is done now and then which has to be hidden, and has to be atoned for. Atonement is rest, the one-day sacrifice. Therefore at the end of the year the sacrificers; rest on this atonement as their rest. He who knows this rests firm, and they also for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites this hymn.

3. Then (follows) the hymn addressed to Savitri, tad devasya savitur vâryam mahat (Rv. IV, 53). Verily, mahat, great, (in this foot) is the end 4. This day too is the end. Thus the verse is fit for the day.

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4. The hymn katarâ pûrvâ katarâ parâyoh (Rv. I, 185), addressed to Dyâvâprithivî, is one in which many verses have the same ending. Verily, this day also (the mahâvrata) is one in which many receive the same reward 1. Thus it is fit for the day.

5. The hymn anasvo gâto anabhîsur ukthyah (Rv. IV, 36) is addressed to the Ribhus.

6. In the first verse the word tri (kakrah) occurs, and trivat 2 is verily the end. This day also is the end (of the sacrifice). Thus the verse is fit for the day.

7. The hymn asya vâmasya palitasya hotuh (Rv. I, 164), addressed to the Visvedevas, is multiform. This day also is multiform 3. Thus the verse is fit for the day.

8. He recites the end of it, beginning with gaurîr mimâya (Rv. I, 164, 41).

9. The hymn â no bhadrâh kratavo yantu visvatah (Rv. I, 89), addressed to the Visvedevas, forms the Nividdhâna, taken from the Ekâha ceremonial, and therefore proper.

10. On that day much is done now and then which has to be hidden, and has to be atoned for. Atonement is rest, the one-day sacrifice. Therefore at the end of the year the sacrificers rest on this atonement as their rest. He who knows this rests firm, and they also for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites this hymn.

11. The hymn vaisvânarâya dhishanâm ritavridhe

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[paragraph continues] (Rv. III, 2) forms the beginning of the Âgnimâruta. Dhishanâ, thought, is verily the end, this day also is the end. Thus it is fit for the day.

12. The hymn prayagyavo maruto bhrâgadrishtayah (Rv. V, 55), addressed to the Maruts, is one in which many verses have the same ending. Verily, this day also is one in which many receive the same reward. Thus it is fit for the day 1.

13. He recites the verse gâtavedase sunavâma somam (Rv. I, 99, 1), addressed to Gâtavedas, before the (next following) hymn. That verse addressed to Gâtavedas is verily welfare, and leads to welfare. Thus (by reciting it) he fares well 2.

14. The hymn imam stomam arhate gâtavedase (Rv. I, 94), addressed to Gâtavedas, is one in which many verses have the same ending. Verily, this day also (the mahâvrata) is one in which many receive the same reward. Thus it is fit for the day, yea, it is fit for the day.


Footnotes

197:1 After finishing the Nishkevalya of the noon-libation, he explains the vaisvadevasastra of the third libation.

197:2 The norm of the Mahâvrata is the Visvagit, and the norm of that, the Agnishtoma Ekâha. The verses to be used for the Vaisvadeva hymn are prescribed in those normal sacrifices, and are here adopted.

197:3 Cf. Ait. Âr. I, 2, 1, 2.

197:4 Nothing higher than the great can be wished for or obtained. Comm.

198:1 All who perform the ceremony obtain Brahman. Cf. § 12.

198:2 The third wheel, in addition to the usual two wheels, forms the end of a carriage, as before the dhuh, Cf. I, 5, 2, 14. This day also is the end.

198:3 Consisting of Vedic hymns and dances, &c. Comm.

199:1 Cf. § 4.

199:2 Cf. I, 5, 2, 8.


SECOND ÂRANYAKA.

FIRST ADHYÂYA.

FIRST KHANDA.

WITH the second Âranyaka the Upanishad begins. It comprises the second and third Âranyakas, and may be said to consist of three divisions, or three Upanishads. Their general title is Bahvrika-upanishad, sometimes Mahaitareya-upanishad, while the Upanishad generally known as, Aitareya-upanishad comprises the 4th, 5th, and 6th adhyâyas only of the second Âranyaka.

The character of the three component portions of the Upanishad can best be described in Sankara’s own words (Âr. III, 1, I, Introd. p. 306): ‘There are three classes of men who want to acquire knowledge. The highest consists of those who have turned away from the world, whose minds are fixed on one subject and collected, and who yearn to be free at once. For these a knowledge of Brahman is intended, as taught in the Ait. Âr. II, 4-6. The middle class are those who wish to become free gradually by attaining to the world of Hiranyagarbha. For them the knowledge and worship of Prâna (breath and life) is intended, as explained in the Ait. Âr. II, 1-3. The lowest class consists of those who do not care either for immediate or gradual freedom, but who desire nothing but offspring, cattle, &c. For these the meditative worship of the Samhitâ is intended, as explained in the third Âranyaka. They cling too strongly to the letter of the sacred text to be able to surrender it for a knowledge either of Prâna (life) or of Brahman.’

The connexion between the Upanishad or rather the three Upanishads and the first Âranyaka seems at first sight very slight. Still we soon perceive that it would be impossible to understand the first Upanishad, without a previous knowledge of the Mahâvrata ceremony as described in the first Âranyaka.

On this point too there are some pertinent remarks in Sankara’s commentary on the Âranyaka II, 1, 2. ‘Our first duty,’ he says, ‘consists in performing sacrifices, such as are described in the first portion of the Veda,, the Samhitâs, Brâhmanas, and, to a certain extent, in the Âranyakas also. Afterwards arises a desire for knowledge, which cannot be satisfied except a man has first attained

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complete concentration of thought (êkâgratâ). In order to acquire that concentration, the performance of certain upâsanas or meditations is enjoined, such as we find described in our Upanishad, viz. in Âr. II, I-V.’

This meditation or, as it is sometimes translated, worship is of two kinds, either brahmopâsana or pratîkopâsana. Brahmopâsana or meditation on Brahman consists in thinking of him as distinguished by certain qualities. Pratîkopâsana or meditation on symbols consists in looking upon certain worldly objects as if they were Brahman, in order thus to withdraw the mind from the too powerful influence of external objects.

These objects, thus lifted up into symbols of Brahman, are of two kinds, either connected with sacrifice or not. In our Upanishad we have to deal with the former class only, viz. with certain portions of the Mahâvrata, as described in the first Âranyaka. In order that the mind may not be entirely absorbed by the sacrifice, it is lifted up during the performance from the consideration of these sacrificial objects to a meditation on higher objects, leading up at last to Brahman as prâna or life.

This meditation is to be performed by the priests, and while they meditate they may meditate on a hymn or on a single word of it as meaning something else, such as the sun, the earth, or the sky, but not vice versâ. And if in one Sâkhâ, as in that of the Aitareyins, for instance, a certain hymn has been symbolically explained, the same explanation may be adopted by another Sâkhâ also, such as that of the Kaushîtakins. It is not necessary, however, that every part of the sacrifice should be accompanied by meditation, but it is left optional to the priest in what particular meditation he wishes to engage, nor is even the time of the sacrifice the only right time for him to engage in these meditations.

1. This is the path: this sacrifice, and this Brahman. This is the true 1.

2. Let no man swerve from it, let no man transgress it.

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3. For the old (sages) did not transgress it, and those who did transgress, became lost.

4. This has been declared by a Rishi (Rv. VIII, 101, 14): ‘Three (classes of) people transgressed, others settled down round about the venerable (Agni, fire); the great (sun) stood in the midst of the worlds, the blowing (Vâyu, air) entered the Harits (the dawns, or the ends of the earth).’

5. When he says: ‘Three (classes of) people transgressed,’ the three (classes of) people who transgressed are what we see here (on earth, born again) as birds, trees, herbs, and serpents 1.

6. When he says: ‘Others settled down round about the venerable,’ he means those who now sit down to worship Agni (fire).

7. When he says: ‘The great stood in the midst of the worlds,’ the great one in the midst of the world is meant for this Âditya, the sun.

8. When he says: ‘The blowing entered the Harits,’ he means that Vâyu, the air, the purifier, entered all the corners of the earth 2.


Footnotes

201:1 Comm. The path is twofold, consisting of works and knowledge. Works or sacrifices have been described in the Samhitâ, the Brâhmana, and the first Âranyaka. Knowledge of Brahman forms the subject of the second and third Âranyakas. The true path is that of knowledge.

202:1 Vanh is explained by vanagatâ vrikshâh; avagadhâh is explained by vrîhiyavâdyâ oshadhayah; îrapâdâh is explained by urahpâdâh sarpâh. Possibly they are all old ethnic names, like Vanga, Kera, &c. In Ânandatîrtha’s commentary vayâmsi are explained by Pisâka, Vanâvagadhas by Râkshasa, and Îrapâdas by Asuras.

202:2 Three classes of men go to Naraka (hell); the fourth class, full of faith and desirous of reaching the highest world, worships Agni, Vâyu, and other gods. Comm.

SECOND KHANDA.

1. People say: ‘Uktha, uktha,’ hymns, hymns! (without knowing what uktha, hymn 3, means.) The

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hymn is truly (to be considered as) the earth, for from it all whatsoever exists arises.

2. The object of its praise is Agni (fire), and the eighty verses (of the hymn) are food, for by means of food one obtains everything.

3. The hymn is truly the sky, for the birds fly along the sky, and men drive following the sky. The object of its praise is Vâyu (air), and the eighty verses (of the hymn) are food, for by means of food one obtains everything.

4. The hymn is truly the heaven, for from its gift (rain) all whatsoever exists arises. The object of its praise is Âditya (the sun), and the eighty verses are food, for by means of food one obtains everything.

5. So much with reference to the gods (mythological); now with reference to man (physiological).

6. The hymn is truly man. He is great, he is Pragâpati. Let him think, I am the hymn.

7. The hymn is his mouth, as before in the case of the earth.

8. The object of its praise is speech, and the eighty verses (of the hymn) are food, for by means of food he obtains everything.

9. The hymn is the nostrils, as before in the case of the sky.

10. The object of its praise is breath, and the eighty verses (of the hymn) are food, for by means of food he obtains everything.

11. The slight bent (at the root) of the nose is, as it were, the place of the brilliant (Âditya, the sun).

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12. The hymn is the forehead, as before in the case of heaven. The object of its praise is the eye, and the eighty verses (of the hymn) are food, for by means of food he obtains everything.

13. The eighty verses (of the hymn) are alike food with reference to the gods as well as with reference to man. For all these beings breathe and live by means of food indeed. By food (given in alms, &c.) he conquers this world, by food (given in sacrifice) he conquers the other. Therefore the eighty verses (of the hymn) are alike food, with reference to the gods as well as with reference to man.

14. All this that is food, and all this that consumes food, is only the earth, for from the earth arises all whatever there is.

115. And all that goes hence (dies on earth), heaven consumes it all; and all that goes thence (returns from heaven to a new life) the earth consumes it all.

16. That earth is thus both food and consumer.

He also (the true worshipper who meditates on himself as being the uktha) is both consumer and consumed (subject and object 1). No one possesses that which he does not eat, or the things which do not eat him 2.


Footnotes

202:3 The Comm. explains uktha as that from whence the favour of the gods arises, uttishthaty anena devatâprasâda iti vyutpatteh. p. 203 The object is now to show that the uktha or hymn used at the Mahâvrata ceremony has a deeper meaning than it seems to have, and that its highest aim is Brahman; not, however, the highest Brahman, but Brahman considered as life (prâna).

204:1 As a master who lives by his servants, while his servants live by him. Comm.

204:2 I have translated these paragraphs, as much as possible, according to the commentator. I doubt whether, either in the original or in the interpretation of the commentator, they yield any very definite sense. They are vague speculations, vague, at least, to us, though intended by the Brahmans to give a deeper meaning to certain ceremonial observances connected with the Mahâvrata. The uktha, or hymn, which is to be meditated on, as connected with the sacrifice, is part of the Mahâvrata, an important ceremony, to be p. 205 performed on the last day but one (the twenty-fourth) of the Gavâmayana sacrifice. That sacrifice lasts a whole year, and its performance has been fully described in the Brâhmanas and Âranyakas. But while the ordinary performer of the Mahâvrata has simply to recite the uktha or nishkevalya-sastra, consisting of eighty verses (trika) in the Gâyatrî, Brihatî, and Ushnih metres, the more advanced worshipper (or priest) is to know that this uktha has a deeper meaning, and is to meditate on it as being the earth, sky, heaven, also as the human body, mouth, nostrils, and forehead. The worshipper is in fact to identify himself by meditation with the uktha in all its senses, and thus to become the universal spirit or Hiranyagarbha. By this process he becomes the consumer and consumed, the subject and object, of everything, while another sacrificer, not knowing this, remains in his limited individual sphere, or, as the text expresses it, does not possess what he cannot eat (perceive), or what cannot eat him (perceive him). The last sentence is explained differently by the commentator, but in connexion with the whole passage it seems to me to become more intelligible, if interpreted as I have proposed to interpret it.

THIRD KHANDA.

1. Next follows the origin of seed. The seed of Pragâpati are the Devas (gods). The seed of the Devas is rain. The seed of rain are herbs. The seed of herbs is food. The seed of food is seed. The seed of seed are creatures. The seed of creatures is the heart. The seed of the heart is the mind. The seed of the mind is speech (Veda). The seed of speech is action (sacrifice). The action done (in a former state) is this man, the abode of Brahman.

2. He (man) consists of food (irâ), and because he consists of food (irâmaya), he consists of gold (hiranmaya 1). He who knows this becomes golden in the other world, and is seen as golden (as the sun) for the benefit of all beings.

FOURTH KHANDA.

1. Brahman (in the shape of prâna, breath) entered into that man by the tips of his feet, and because Brahman entered (prâpadyata) into that man by the tips of his feet, therefore people call them the tips of the feet (prapada), but hoofs and claws in other animals.

2. Then Brahman crept up higher, and therefore they were (called) 1 the thighs (ûrû).

3. Then he said: ‘Grasp wide,’ and that was (called) the belly (udara).

4. Then he said: ‘Make room for me,’ and that was (called) the chest (uras).

5. The Sârkarâkshyas meditate on the belly as Brahman, the Ârunis on the heart 2. Both (these places) are Brahman indeed 3.

6. But Brahman crept upwards and came to the head, and because he came to the head, therefore the head is called head 4.

7. Then these delights alighted in the head, sight, hearing, mind, speech, breath.

8. Delights alight on him who thus knows, why the head is called head.

9. These (five delights or senses) strove together, saying: ‘I am the uktha (hymn), I am the uktha 5.’ ‘Well,’ they said, ‘let us all go out from

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this body; then on whose departure this body shall fall, he shall be the uktha among us 1.’

10. Speech went out, yet the body without speaking remained, eating and drinking.

Sight went out, yet the body without seeing remained, eating and drinking.

Hearing went out, yet the body without hearing remained, eating and drinking.

Mind went out, yet the body, as if blinking, remained, eating and drinking.

Breath went out, then when breath was gone out, the body fell.

11. It was decayed, and because people said, it decayed, therefore it was (called) body (sarîra). That is the reason of its name.

12. If a man knows this, then the evil enemy who hates him decays, or the evil enemy who hates him is defeated.

13. They strove again, saying: ‘I am the uktha, I am the uktha.’ ‘Well,’ they said, ‘let us enter that body again; then on whose entrance this body shall rise again, he shall be the uktha among us.’

14. Speech entered, but the body lay still. Sight entered, but the body lay still. Hearing entered, but the body lay still. Mind entered, but the body lay still. Breath entered, and when breath had entered, the body rose, and it became the uktha.

15. Therefore breath alone is the uktha.

16. Let people know that breath is the uktha indeed.

17. The Devas (the other senses) said to breath: ‘Thou art the uktha, thou art all this, we are thine, thou art ours.’

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18. This has also been said by a Rishi (Rv. VIII, 92, 32): ‘Thou art ours, we are thine.’


Footnotes

206:1 These are all plays on words. Comm.

206:2 This does not appear to be the case either in the Kh. Up. V, 15; 17, or in the Satapatha-brâhmana X, 6, 1.

206:3 The pluti in tâȝi is explained as sâstrîyaprasiddhyarthâ.

206:4 All puns, as if we were to say, because he hied up to the head, therefore the head was called head.

206:5 Each wished to be identified with the uktha, as it was said before that the human body, mouth, nostrils, forehead were to be identified with the uktha. Cf. Kaush. Up. III, 3.

207:1 Cf. Kh. Up. V, 1; Brih. Up. VI, 1; Kaush. Up. II, 12-14; III, 2; Prasna Up. II, 1.

FIFTH KHANDA.

Then the Devas carried him (the breath) forth, and being carried forth, he was stretched out, and when people said, ‘He was stretched out,’ then it was in the morning; when they said, ‘He is gone to rest,’ then it was in the evening. Day, therefore, is the breathing up, night the breathing down 1.

2. Speech is Agni, sight that Âditya (sun), mind the moon, hearing the Dis (quarters): this is the prahitâm samyoga 2, the union of the deities as sent forth. These deities (Agni, &c.) are thus in the body, but their (phenomenal) appearance yonder is among the deities–this was intended.

3. And Hiranyadat Vaida also, who knew this (and who by his knowledge had become Hiranyagarbha or the universal spirit), said: ‘Whatever they do not give to me, they do not possess themselves.’ I know the prahitâm samyoga, the union of the deities, as entered into the body 3. This is it.

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4. To him who knows this all creatures, without being constrained, offer gifts.

5. That breath is (to be called) sattya (the true), for sat is breath, ti is food, yam is the sun 1. This is threefold, and threefold the eye also may be called, it being white, dark, and the pupil. He who knows why true is true (why sattya is sattya), even if he should speak falsely, yet what he says is true.


Footnotes

208:1 All these are plays on words, prâtar being derived from prâtâyi, sâyam from samâgât. The real object, however, is to show that breath, which is the uktha, which is the worshipper, is endowed with certain qualities, viz. time, speech, &c.

208:2 The meaning is, that the four deities, Agni, Âditya, Moon, and the Dis proceed from their own places to dwell together in the body of man, and that this is called the prahitâm samyogah. Prahit is explained as prahita, placed, sent. It is probably formed from hi, not from dhâ. Prahitoh samyoganam is the name of a Sâman, Ind. Stud. III, 225. As Devas or gods they appear each in its own place. The whole passage is very obscure.

208:3 All this is extremely obscure, possibly incorrect. For yam, unless it refers to some other word, we expect yan. For dadyuh one expects dadyât. What is intended is that Hiranyadat had p. 209 through meditation acquired identity with the universal spirit, and that therefore he might say that whatever was not surrendered to him did not really belong to anybody. On Hiranyadat, see Ait. Brâhm. III, 6.

209:1 Cf. Kh. Up. VIII, 3, 5.

SIXTH KHANDA.

1. Speech is his (the breath’s) rope, the names the knots 2. Thus by his speech as by a rope, and by his names as by knots, all this is bound. For all this are names indeed, and with speech he calls everything.

2. People carry him who knows this, as if they were bound by a rope.

3. Of the body of the breath thus meditated on, the Ushnih verse forms the hairs, the Gâyatrî the skin, the Trishtubh the flesh, the Anushtubh the muscles, the Gagatî the bone, the Pankti the marrow, the Brihatî the breath 3 (prâna). He is covered with the verses (khandas, metres). Because he is thus covered with verses, therefore they call them khandas (coverings, metres).

4. If a man knows the reason why khandas are called khandas, the verses cover him in whatever place he likes against any evil deed.

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5. This is said by a Rishi (Rv. I, 164, 13):–

6. ‘I saw (the breath) as a guardian, never tiring, coming and going on his ways (the arteries). That breath (in the body, being identified with the sun among the Devas), illuminating the principal and intermediate quarters of the sky, is returning constantly in the midst of the worlds.’

He says: ‘I saw a guardian,’ because he, the breath, is a guardian, for he guards everything.

7. He says: ‘Never tiring,’ because the breath never rests.

8. He says: ‘Coming and going on his ways,’ because the breath comes and goes on his ways.

9. He says: ‘Illuminating the principal and intermediate,’ because he illuminates these only, the principal and intermediate quarters of the sky.

10. He says. ‘He is returning constantly in the midst of the worlds,’ because he returns indeed constantly in the midst of the worlds.

11. And then, there is another verse (Rv. I, 55, 81): ‘They are covered like caves by those who make them,’

12. For all this is covered indeed by breath.

13. This ether is supported by breath as Brihatî, and as this ether is supported by breath as Brihatî, so one should know that all things, not excepting ants, are supported by breath as Brihatî.


Footnotes

209:2 The rope is supposed to be the chief rope to which various smaller ropes are attached for fastening animals.

209:3 Here conceived as the air breathed, not as the deity. Comm.

SEVENTH KHANDA.

1. Next follow the powers of that Person 1.

2. By his speech earth and fire were created.

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[paragraph continues] Herbs are produced on the earth, and Agni (fire) makes them ripe and sweet. ‘Take this, take this,’ thus saying do earth and fire serve their parent, speech.

3. As far as the earth reaches, as far as fire reaches, so far does his world extend, and as long as the world of the earth and fire does not decay, so long does his world not decay who thus knows this power of speech.

4. By breath (in the nose) the sky and the air were created. People follow the sky, and hear along the sky, while the air carries along pure scent. Thus do sky and air serve their parent, the breath.

As far as the sky reaches, as far as the air reaches, so far does his world extend, and as long as the world of the sky and the air does not decay, so long does his world not decay who thus knows this power of breath.

5. By his eye heaven and the sun were created. Heaven gives him rain and food, while the sun causes his light to shine. Thus do the heaven and the sun serve their parent, the eye.

As far as heaven reaches and as far as the sun reaches, so far does his world extend, and as long as the world of heaven and the sun does not decay, so long does his world not decay who thus knows the power of the eye.

6. By his ear the quarters and the moon were created. From all the quarters they come to him, and from all the quarters he hears, while the moon produces for him the bright and the dark halves for the sake of sacrificial work. Thus do the quarters and the moon serve their parent, the ear.

As far as the quarters reach and as far as the

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moon reaches, so far does his world extend, and as long as the world of the quarters and the moon does not decay, so long does his world not decay who thus knows the power of the ear.

7. By his mind the water and Varuna were created. Water yields to him faith (being used for sacred acts), Varuna keeps his offspring within the law. Thus do water and Varuna serve their parent, the mind.

As far as water reaches and as far as Varuna reaches, so far does his world extend, and as long as the world of water and Varuna does not decay, so long does his world not decay who thus knows the power of the mind.


Footnotes

210:1 The purusha, as described before in the second chapter, is the Pragâpati or universal spirit with whom the worshipper is to identify himself by meditation. The manifestations of his power consist in creating the earth, fire, the sky, the air, heaven, the sun.

EIGHTH KHANDA 1

1. Was it water really? Was it water? Yes, all this was water indeed. This (water) was the root (cause), that (the world) was the shoot (effect). He (the person) is the father, they (earth, fire, &c.) are the sons. Whatever there is belonging to the son, belongs to the father; whatever there is belonging to the father, belongs to the son. This was intended 2.

2. Mahidâsa Aitareya, who knew this, said: ‘I know myself (reaching) as far as the gods, and I know the gods (reaching) as far as me. For these

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gods receive their gifts from hence, and are supported from hence.’

3. This is the mountain 1, viz. eye, ear, mind, speech, and breath. They call it the mountain of Brahman.

4. He who knows this, throws down the evil enemy who hates him; the evil enemy who hates him is defeated.

5. He (the Prâna, identified with Brahman) is the life, the breath; he is being (while the gîvâtman remains), and not-being (when the gîvâtman departs).

6. The Devas (speech, &c.) worshipped him (prâna) as Bhûti or being, and thus they became great beings. And therefore even now a man who sleeps, breathes like bhûrbhuh.

7. The Asuras worshipped him as Abhûti or not being, and thus they were defeated.

8. He who knows this, becomes great by himself, while the evil enemy who hates him, is defeated.

9. He (the breath) is death (when he departs), and immortality (while he abides).

10. And this has been said by a Rishi (Rv. I, 164, 38):–

11. ‘Downwards and upwards he (the wind of the breath) goes, held by food;’–for this up-breathing, being held back by the down-breathing, does not move forward (and leave the body altogether).

12. ‘The immortal dwells with the mortal;’–for through him (the breath) all this dwells together, the bodies being clearly mortal, but this being (the breath), being immortal.

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13. ‘These two (body and breath) go for ever in different directions (the breath moving the senses of the body, the body supporting the senses of the breath: the former going upwards to another world, the body dying and remaining on earth). They increase the one (the body), but they do not increase the other,’ i. e. they increase these bodies (by food), but this being (breath) is immortal.

14. He who knows this becomes immortal in that world (having become united with Hiranyagarbha), and is seen as immortal (in the sun) by all beings, yea, by all beings.


Footnotes

212:1 Having described how Prâna, the breath, and his companions or servants created the world, he now discusses the question of the material cause of the world out of which it was created. Water, which is said to be the material of the world, is explained by the commentator to mean here the five elements.

212:2 Cause and effect are not entirely separated, therefore water, as the elementary cause, and earth, fire, &c., as its effect, are one; likewise the worshipper, as the father, and the earth, fire, &c. as his sons, as described above. Mûla and tûla, root and shoot, are evidently chosen for the sake of the rhyme, to signify cause and effect.

213:1 Prâna is called the girih, because it is swallowed or hidden by the other senses (giranât). Again a mere play of words, intended to show that Brahman under the form of Prâna, or life, is to be meditated on.

SECOND ADHYÂYA 1.

FIRST KHANDA.

1. He (the sun), who shines, honoured this world (the body of the worshipper, by entering into it), in the form of man 2 (the worshipper who meditates on breath). For he who shines (the sun) is (the same as) the breath. He honoured this (body of the worshipper) during a hundred years, therefore there are a hundred years in the life of a man. Because he honoured him during a hundred years, therefore there are (the poets of the first Mandala of the Rig-veda, called) the Satarkin, (having honour for a

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hundred years.) Therefore people call him who is really Prâna (breath), the Satarkin poets 1.

2. He (breath) placed himself in the midst of all whatsoever exists. Because he placed himself in the midst of all whatsoever exists, therefore there are (the poets of the second to the ninth Mandala of the Rig-veda, called) the Mâdhyamas. Therefore people call him who is really Prâna (breath), the Mâdhyama poets.

3. He as up-breathing is the swallower (gritsa), as down-breathing he is delight (mada). Because as up-breathing he is swallower (gritsa) and as down-breathing delight (mada), therefore there is (the poet of the second Mandala of the Rig-veda, called) Gritsamada. Therefore people call him who is really Prâna (breath), Gritsamada.

4. Of him. (breath) all this whatsoever was a friend. Because of him all (visvam) this whatsoever was a friend (mitram), therefore there is (the poet of the third Mandala of the Rig-veda, called) Visvâmitra. Therefore people call him who is really Prâna (breath), Visvâmitra.

5. The Devas (speech, &c.) said to him (the breath): ‘He is to be loved by all of us.’ Because the Devas said of him, that he was to be loved (vâma) by all of them, therefore there is (the poet of the fourth Mandala of the Rig-veda, called) Vâmadeva. Therefore people call him who is really Prâna (breath), Vâmadeva.

6. He (breath) guarded all this whatsoever from evil. Because he guarded (atrâyata) all this whatsoever

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from evil, therefore there are (the poets of the fifth Mandala of the Rig-veda, called) Atrayah. Therefore people call him who is really Prâna (breath), Atrayah.


Footnotes

214:1 In the first adhyâya various forms of meditating on Uktha, conceived as Prâna (life), have been declared. In the second some other forms of meditation, all extremely fanciful, are added. They are of interest, however, as showing the existence of the hymns of the Rig-veda, divided and arranged as we now possess them, at the time when this Âranyaka was composed.

214:2 The identity of the sun and of breath as living in man has been established before. It is the same power in both, conceived either adhidaivatam (mythological) or adhyâtmam (physiological).

215:1 The real ground for the name is that the poets of the first Mandala composed on an average each about a hundred Rik, verses.

SECOND KHANDA.

1. He (breath) is likewise a Bibhradvâga (bringer of offspring). Offspring is vâga, and he (breath) supports offspring. Because he supports it, therefore there is (the poet of the sixth Mandala of the Rig-veda, called) Bharadvâga. Therefore people call him who is really Prâna (breath), Bharadvâga.

2. The Devas (speech, &c.) said to him: ‘He it is who chiefly causes us to dwell on earth.’ Because the Devas said of him, that he chiefly caused them to dwell on earth, therefore there is (the poet of the seventh Mandala of the Rig-veda, called) Vasishtha. Therefore people call him who is really Prâna (breath), Vasishtha 1.

3. He (breath) went forth towards 2 all this whatsoever. Because he went forth toward all this whatsoever, therefore there are (the poets of the eighth Mandala of the Rig-veda, called) the Pragâthas. Therefore people call him who is really Prâna (breath), the Pragâthas.

4. He (breath) purified all this whatsoever. Because he purified all this whatsoever, therefore there

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are (the hymns and also the poets 1 of the ninth Mandala of the Rig-veda, called) the Pavamânîs. Therefore people called him who is really Prâna (breath), the Pavamânîs.

5. He (breath) said: ‘Let me be everything whatsoever, small (kshudra) and great (mahat), and this became the Kshudrasûktas and Mahâsûktas.’ Therefore there were (the hymns and also the poets of the tenth Mandala of the Rig-veda, called) the Kshudrasûktas (and Mahâsûktas). Therefore people call him who is really Prâna (breath), the Kshudrasûktas (and Mahâsûktas).

6. He (breath) said once: ‘You have said what is well said (su-ukta) indeed. This became a Sûkta (hymn).’ Therefore there was the Sûkta. Therefore people call him who is really Prâna (breath), Sûkta 2.

7. He (breath) is a Rik (verse), for he did honour 3 to all beings (by entering into them). Because he did honour to all beings, therefore there was the Rik verse. Therefore people call him who is really Prâna (breath), Rik.

8. He (breath) is an Ardharka (half-verse), for he did honour to all places (ardha) 4. Because he did honour to all places, therefore there was the Ardharka. Therefore people call him who is really Prâna (breath), Ardharka.

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9. He (breath) is a Pada (word) 1, for he got into all these beings. Because he got (pâdi) into all these beings, therefore there was the Pada (word). Therefore people call him who is really Prâna (breath), Pada.

10. He (breath) is an Akshara (syllable), for he pours out (ksharati) gifts to all these beings, and without him no one can pour out (atiksharati) gifts. Therefore there was the Akshara (syllable). Therefore people call him who is really Prâna (breath), Akshara 2.

11. Thus all these Rik verses, all Vedas, all sounds 3 are one word, viz. Prâna (breath). Let him know that Prâna is all Rik verses.


Footnotes

216:1 I translate in accordance with the commentator, and probably with the intention of the author. The same etymology is repeated in the commentary on II, 2, 4, 2. It would be more natural to take vasishtha in the sense of the richest.

216:2 This is the interpretation of the commentator, and the preposition abhi seems to show that the author too took that view of the etymology of pragâtha.

217:1 It seems, indeed, as if in the technical language of the Brahmans, the poets of the ninth Mandala were sometimes called Pavamânîs, and the hymns of the tenth Mandala Kshudrasûktas and Mahâsûktas (masc.) Cf. Ârsheya-brâhmana, ed. Burnell, p. 42.

217:2 The poet also is called Sûkta, taddrashtâpi sûktanâmako ‘bhût. Comm.

217:3 I translate according to the commentator.

217:4 Ardha means both half and place.

218:1 It may also be intended for pâda, foot of a verse.

218:2 The Prâna (breath) is to be meditated on as all hymns, all poets, all words, &c. Comm.

218:3 All aspirated sonant consonants. Comm.

THIRD KHANDA.

1. While Visvâmitra was going to repeat the hymns of this day (the mahâvrata), Indra sat down near him 4. Visvâmitra (guessing that Indra wanted food) said to him, ‘This (the verses of the hymn) is food,’ and repeated the thousand Brihatî verses 5

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[paragraph continues] By means of this he went to the delightful home of Indra (Svarga).

2. Indra said to him: ‘Rishi, thou hast come to my delightful home. Rishi, repeat a second hymn 1.’ Visvâmitra (guessing that Indra wanted food) said to him, ‘This (the verses of the hymn) is food,’ and repeated the thousand Brihatî verses. By means of this he went to the delightful home of Indra (Svarga).

3. Indra said to him: ‘Rishi, thou hast come to my delightful home. Rishi, repeat a third hymn.’ Visvâmitra (guessing that Indra wanted food) said to him, ‘This (the verses of the hymn) is food,’ and repeated the thousand Brihatî verses. By means of this he went to the delightful home of Indra (Svarga).

4. Indra said to him: ‘Rishi, thou hast come to my delightful home. I grant thee a boon.’ Visvâmitra said: ‘May I know thee.’ Indra said: ‘I am Prâna (breath), O Rishi, thou art Prâna, all things are Prâna. For it is Prâna who shines as the sun, and I here pervade all regions under that form. This food of mine (the hymn) is my friend and my support (dakshina). This is the food prepared by Visvâmitra. I am verily he who shines (the sun).’


Footnotes

218:4 Upanishasasâda, instead of upanishasâda. The mistake is probably due to a correction, sa for sha; the commentator, however, considers it as a Vedic license. Skâro ‘dhikas khândasah.

218:5 These are meant for the Nishkevalya hymn recited at the noon-libation of the Mahâvrata. That hymn consists of ten parts, corresponding, as we saw, to ten parts of a bird, viz. its body, neck, head, root of wings, right wing, left wing, tail, belly, chest, and thighs. The verses corresponding to these ten parts, beginning with tad id asa bhuvaneshu gyeshtham, are given in the first Âranyaka, and more fully in the fifth Âranyaka by Saunaka. p. 219 Though they consist of many metres, yet, when one counts the syllables, they give a thousand Brihatî verses, each consisting of thirty-six syllables.

219:1 Although the Nishkevalya is but one hymn, consisting of eighty trikas, yet as these eighty trikas were represented as three kinds of food (see Ait. Âr. II, 1, 2, 2-4), the hymn is represented as three hymns, first as eighty Gâyatrî trikas, then as eighty Brihatî trikas, lastly as eighty Ushnih trikas.

FOURTH KHANDA.

1. This then becomes perfect as a thousand of Brihatî verses. Its consonants 1 form its body, its voice 2 (vowels) the Soul 3, its sibilants 4 the air of the breath.

2. He who knew this became Vasishtha, he took this name from thence 5.

3. Indra verily declared this to Visvâmitra, and Indra verily declared this to Bharadvâga. Therefore Indra is invoked by him as a friend 6.

4. This becomes perfect as a thousand of Brihatî verses 7, and of that hymn perfect with a thousand Brihad verses, there are 36,000 syllables 8. So many are also the thousands of days of a hundred years (36,000). With the consonants they fill the nights, with the vowels the days.

5. This becomes perfect as a thousand of Brihatî verses. He who knows this, after this thousand of Brihatîs thus accomplished, becomes full of knowledge, full of the gods, full of Brahman, full of the immortal, and then goes also to the gods.

6. What I am (the worshipper), that is he (sun); what he is, that am I.

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7. This has been said by a Rishi (Rv. I, 115, 1): ‘The sun is the self of all that moves and rests.’

8. Let him look to that, let him look to that!


Footnotes

220:1 Vyañganâni, explained by kâdini.

220:2 Ghosha, explained by aspirated sonant consonants.

220:3 Âtmâ, explained by madhyasarîram.

220:4 Sashasahâh. Comm.

220:5 He became Prâna, and because Prâna causes all to dwell, or covers all (vâsayati), therefore the Rishi was called Vasishtha. Comm. Cf. Ait. Âr. II, 2, 2, 2.

220:6 At the Subrahmanyâ ceremony in the Soma sacrifices, the invocations are, Indra â gakkha, hariva â gakkha.

220:7 Cf. Ait. Âr. II, 3, 8, 8.

220:8 Each Brihatî has thirty-six syllables.

THIRD ADHYÂYA 1.

FIRST KHANDA.

1. He who knows himself as the fivefold hymn (uktha), the emblem of Prâna (breath), from whence all this springs 2, he is clever. These five are the earth, air, ether, water, and fire (gyotis). This is the self, the fivefold uktha. For from him all this springs, and into him it enters again (at the dissolution of the world). He who knows this, becomes the refuge of his friends.

2. And to him who knows the food (object) and the feeder (subject) in that uktha, a strong son is born, and food is never wanting. Water and earth are food, for all food consists of these two. Fire and air are the feeder, for by means of them 3 man eats all food. Ether is the bowl, for all this is poured into the ether. He who knows this, becomes the bowl or support of his friends.

3. To him who knows the food and the feeder in that uktha, a strong son is born, and food is never wanting. Herbs and trees are food, animals the feeder, for animals eat herbs and trees.

4. Of them again those who have teeth above

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and below, shaped after the likeness of man, are feeders, the other animals are food. Therefore these overcome the other animals, for the eater is over the food.

5. He who knows this is over his friends.


Footnotes

221:1 In this adhyâya some more qualities are explained belonging to the Mahâvrata ceremonial and the hymns employed at it, which can be meditated on as referring to Prâna, life.

221:2 Because the world is the result or reward for performing a meditation on the uktha. Comm.

221:3 The digestive fire is lighted by the air of the breath. Comm.

SECOND KHANDA 1.

1. He who knows the gradual development of the self in him (the man conceived as the uktha), obtains himself more development.

2. There are herbs and trees and all that is animated, and he knows the self gradually developing in them. For in herbs and trees sap only is seen 2, but thought (kitta) in animated beings.

Among animated beings again the self develops gradually, for in some sap (blood) is seen (as well as thought), but in others thought is not seen.

4. And in man again the self develops gradually, for he is most endowed with knowledge. He says what he has known, he sees what he has known 3. He knows what is to happen to-morrow, he knows heaven and hell. By means of the mortal he desires the immortal–thus is he endowed.

5. With regard to the other animals hunger and thirst only are a kind of understanding. But they do not say what they have known, nor do they see

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what they have known. They do not know what is to happen to-morrow, nor heaven and hell. They go so far and no further, for they are born according to their knowledge (in a former life).


Footnotes

222:1 This treats of the gradual development of life in man, particularly of the development of a thinking soul (kaitanya).

222:2 In stones there is not even sap, but only being, sattâ. Comm.

222:3 What he has known yesterday he remembers, and is able to say before men, I know this. And when he has known a thing he remembers it, and goes to the same place to see it again. Comm.

THIRD KHANDA.

1. That man (conceived as uktha) is the sea, rising beyond the whole world 1. Whatever he reaches, he wishes to go beyond 2. If he reaches the sky, he wishes to go beyond.

2. If he should reach that (heavenly) world, he would wish to go beyond.

3. That man is fivefold. The heat in him is fire; the apertures (of the senses) are ether; blood, mucus, and seed are water; the body is earth; breath is air.

4. That air is fivefold, viz. up-breathing, down-breathing, back-breathing, out-breathing, on-breathing. The other powers (devatâs), viz. sight, hearing, mind, and speech, are comprised under up-breathing and down-breathing. For when breath departs, they also depart with it.

5. That man (conceived as uktha) is the sacrifice, which is a succession now of speech and now of thought. That sacrifice is fivefold, viz. the Agnihotra, the new and full moon sacrifices, the four-monthly sacrifices, the animal sacrifice, the Soma sacrifice. The Soma sacrifice is the most perfect of sacrifices, for in it these five kinds of ceremonies are seen: the first which precedes the libations (the Dîkshâ, &c.), then three libations, and what follows (the Avabhritha, &c.) is the fifth.

FOURTH KHANDA.

1. He who knows one sacrifice above another, one day above another, one deity above the others, he is clever. Now this great uktha (the nishkevalya-sastra) is the sacrifice above another, the day above another, the deity above others 1.

2. This uktha is fivefold. With regard to its being performed as a Stoma (chorus), it is Trivrit, Pañkadasa, Saptadasa, Ekavimsa, and Pañkavimsa. With regard to its being performed as a Sâman (song), it is Gâyatra, Rathantara, Brihat, Bhadra, and Râgana. With regard to metre, it is Gâyatrî, Ushnih, Brihatî, Trishtubh, and Dvipadâ. And the explanation (given before in the Âranyaka) is that it is the head, the right wing, the left wing, the tail, and the body of the bird 2.

in each hymn. This, is the first round. He then sings the three middle verses in each hymn. This is the second round. He lastly sings the last three verses in each hymn. This is the third round. This song is called Udyatî.

The Pañkadasa stoma is formed out of one Sûkta only, consisting of three verses. In the first round he sings the first verse p. 225 three times, the second and third once. In the second round he sings the middle verse three times, in the third round he sings the last verse three times. This song is called Vishtuti.

The Saptadasa stoma is formed in the same manner, only that in the first round he sings the first verse three times, in the second the middle verse three times, in the third round the middle and last verses three times. This song is called Dasasapta.

The Ekavimsa stoma is formed in the same manner, only that in the first round he sings the last verse once, in the second the first verse once, in the third the middle verse once, while the other verses are each repeated three times. This song is called Saptasaptinî.

The Pañkavimsa stoma is formed in the same manner, only that in the first round he sings the first verse three times, the second four times, the last once; in the second round the first once, the second three times, the third four times; in the third round the first five times, the second once, the last three times; or he sings in the third round the first verse four times, the second twice, the last three times.

Sâyana in his commentary on the Ait. Âr. takes the Trivrit stoma to be formed out of three hymns, each consisting of three verses, while he says that the other stomas are formed out of one hymn only. B. and R., s.v. trivrit, state that this stoma consists of verses 1, 4, 7; 2, 5, 8; and 3, 6, 9 of the Rig-veda hymn IX, 11, but, according to Sâyana, the stoma consists (1) of the first verses of the three Sûktas, upâsmai gâyata, davidyutatyâ, and pavamânasya at the beginning of the Sâma-veda-Uttarârkika, (2) of the second, (3) Of the third verses of the same three hymns. Mahîdhâra (Yv. X, 9) takes the same view, though the MSS. seem to have left out the description of the second paryâya, while Sâyana in his commentary to the Tândya-brâhmana seems to support the opinion of B. and R. There is an omission, however, in the printed text of the commentary, which makes it difficult to see the exact meaning of Sâyana.

The Pañkadasa stoma is well described by Sâyana, Tândya Br. II, 4. Taking the Sûkta agna â yâhi (Uttarârkika I, 1, 4 = Rv. VI, 16, 10-12), he shows the stoma to consist of (1) verse 1 × 3, 2, 3 (2) verse 1, 2 × 3, 3; (3) verse 1, 2, 3 × 3.

The five Sâmans are explained by the commentator. The p. 226 Gâyatra is formed out of the Rik (III, 62, 10) tat savitur varenyam. The Rathantara is formed out of the Rik (VII, 32, 22) abhi tvâ sûra nonuma. The Brihat is formed out of the Rik (VI, 46, 1) tvâm id dhi havâmahe. The Bhadra is formed out of the Rik (X, 57, 1) imâ nu kam. The Râgana is formed out of the Rik (VII, 27, 1) indram naro nemadhitâ.

The metres require no explanation.

In identifying certain portions of the Nishkevalya hymn with a bird, the head of the bird corresponds to the hymns indram id gâthinah, &c.; the right wing to the hymns abhi tvâ sûra, &c.; the left wing to the hymns tvâm id dhi, &c.; the tail to the hymns imâ nu kam, &c.; the body to the hymns tad id âsa, &c. All this was explained in the first Âranyaka.

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3. He performs the Prastâva in five ways, he performs the Udgîtha in five ways, he performs the

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[paragraph continues] Pratihâra in five ways, he performs the Upadrava in five ways, he performs the Nidhana in five ways 1. All this together forms one thousand Stobhas, or musical syllables 2.

4. Thus also are the Rik verses, contained in the Nishkevalya, recited (by the Hotri) in five orders. What precedes the eighty trikas, that is one order, then follow the three sets of eighty trikas each, and what comes after is the fifth order 3.

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5. This (the hymns of this Sastra) as a whole (if properly counted with the Stobha syllables) comes to one thousand (of Brihatî verses). That (thousand) is the whole, and ten, ten is called the whole. For number is such (measured by ten). Ten tens are a hundred, ten hundreds are a thousand, and that is the whole. These are the three metres (the tens, pervading everything). And this food also (the three sets of hymns being represented as food) is threefold, eating, drinking, and chewing. He obtains that food by those (three numbers, ten, hundred, and thousand, or by the three sets of eighty trikas).


Footnotes

224:1 The uktha is to be conceived as prâna, breath or life, and this prâna was shown to be above the other powers (devatâs), speech, hearing, seeing, mind. The uktha belongs to the Mahâvrata day, and that is the most important day of the Soma sacrifice. The Soma sacrifice, lastly, is above all other sacrifices.

224:2 All these are technicalities connected with the singing and reciting of the uktha. The commentator says: The stoma is a collection of single Rik verses occurring in the trikas which have to be sung. The Trivrit stoma, as explained in the Sâma-brâhmana, is as follows: There are three Sûktas, each consisting of three verses, the first being upâsmai gâyata, S. V. Uttarârkika I, 1, 1 = Rv. IX, 11. The Udgâtri first sings the first three verses a

224:a Hinkri with dative is explained as gai with accusative.

226:1 The Sâmagas sing the Râgana at the Mahâvrata, and in that Sâman there are, as usual, five parts, the Prastâva, Udgîtha, pratihâra, Upadrava, and Nidhana. The Prastotri, when singing the Prastâva portions, sings them five times. The Udgâtri and Pratihartri sing their portions, the Udgîtha and Pratihâra, five times. The Udgâtri again sings the Upadrava five times. And all the Udgâtris together sing the Nidhana five times.

226:2 The Stobha syllables are syllables without any meaning, added when verses have to be sung, in order to have a support for the music. See Kh. Up. I, 13. In singing the five Sâmans, each five times, one thousand of such Stobha syllables are required.

226:3 There are in the Nishkevalya hymn, which the Hotri has to recite, three sets of eighty trikas each. The first, consisting of Gâyatrîs, begins with indro ya ogasâ. The second, consisting of Brihatîs, begins with ya kid anyad. The third, consisting of Ushnihs, begins with ya indra somapâtama. These three sets form the food of the bird, as the emblem of the sastra. The hymns p. 227 which precede these, form the body, head, and wings of the bird. This is one order. Then follow the three sets of eighty trikas each; and lastly, the fifth order, consisting of the hymns which form the belly and the legs of the bird.

FIFTH KHANDA.

1. This (nishkevalya-sastra) becomes perfect as a thousand of Brihatî verses.

2. Some teachers (belonging to a different Sâkhâ) recognise a thousand of different metres (not of Brihatîs only). They say: ‘Is another thousand (a thousand of other verses) good? Let us say it is good.’

3. Some say, a thousand of Trishtubh verses, others a thousand of Gagatî verses, others a thousand of Anushtubh verses.

4. This has been said by a Rishi (Rv. X, 124, 9):–

5. ‘Poets through their understanding discovered Indra dancing an Anushtubh.’ This is meant to say: They discovered (and meditated) in speech (called Anushtubh)–at that time (when they worshipped

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the uktha)–the Prâna (breath) connected with Indra.

6. He (who takes the recited verses as Anushtubhs) is able to become celebrated and of good report.

7. No! he says; rather is such a man liable to die before his time. For that self (consisting of Anushtubhs) is incomplete. For if a man confines himself to speech, not to breath, then driven by his mind, he does not succeed with speech 1.

8. Let him work towards the Brihatî, for the Brihatî (breath) is the complete self.

9. That self (gîvâtman) is surrounded on all sides by members. And as that self is on all sides surrounded by members, the Brihatî also is on all sides surrounded by metres 2.

10. For the self (in the heart) is the middle of these members, and the Brihatî is the middle of the metres.

11. ‘He is able to become celebrated and of good

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report, but (the other) able to die before his time,’ thus he said. For the Brihatî is the complete self, therefore let him work towards the Brihatî (let him reckon the sastra recitation as a thousand Brihatîs).


Footnotes

228:1 This passage is obscure, and probably corrupt. I have followed the commentator as much as possible. He says: ‘If the Hotri priest proceeds with reciting the sastra, looking to the Anushtubh, which is speech, and not to the thousand of Brihatîs which are breath, then, neglecting the Brihatî (breath), and driven by his mind to the Anushtubh (speech), he does not by his speech obtain that sastra. For in speech without breath the Hotri cannot, through the mere wish of the mind, say the sastra, the activity of all the senses being dependent on breath.’ The commentator therefore takes vâgabhi for vâkam abhi, or for some old locative case formed by abhi. He also would seem to have read prâne na. One might attempt another construction, though it is very doubtful. One might translate, ‘For that self, which is speech, is incomplete, because he understands if driven to the mind by breath, not (if driven) by speech.’

228:2 Either in the sastra, or in the list of metres, there being some that have more, others that have less syllables.

SIXTH KHANDA.

1. This (nishkevalya-sastra) becomes perfect as a thousand of Brihatî verses. In this thousand of Brihatîs there are one thousand one hundred and twenty-five Anushtubhs. For the smaller is contained in the larger.

2. This has been said by a Rishi (Rv. VIII, 76, 12):–

3. ‘A speech of eight feet;’–because there are eight feet of four syllables each in the Anushtubh.

4. ‘Of nine corners;’–because the Brihatî becomes nine-cornered (having nine feet of four syllables each).

5. ‘Touching the truth;’–because speech (Anushtubh) is truth, touched by the verse (Brihatî) 1.

6. ‘He (the Hotri) makes the body out of Indra;–‘for out of this thousand of Brihatî verses turned into Anushtubhs, and therefore out of Prâna as connected with Indra 2, and out of the Brihatî (which is Prâna), he makes speech, that is Anushtubh, as a body 3.

7. This Mahaduktha is the highest development

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of speech, and it is fivefold, viz. measured, not measured, music, true, and untrue.

8. A Rik verse, a gâthâ 1, a kumbyâ 2 are measured (metrical). A Yagus line, an invocation, and general remarks 3, these are not measured (they are in prose). A Sâman, or any portion (parvan) of it, is music. Om is true, Na is untrue.

9. What is true (Om) is the flower and fruit of speech. He is able to become celebrated and of good report, for he speaks the true (Om), the flower and fruit of speech.

10. Now the untrue is the root 4 of speech, and as a tree whose root is exposed dries up and perishes, thus a man who says what is untrue exposes his root, dries up and perishes. Therefore one should not say what is untrue, but guard oneself from it.

11. That syllable Om (yes) goes forward (to the first cause of the world) and is empty. Therefore if a man says Om (yes) to everything, then that (which he gives away) is wanting to him here 5. If he says Om (yes) to everything, then he would empty himself, and would not be capable of any enjoyments.

12. That syllable Na (no) is full for oneself 6. If a man says No to everything, then his reputation

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would become evil, and that would ruin him even here.

13. Therefore let a man give at the proper time only, not at the wrong time. Thus he unites the true and the untrue, and from the union of those two he grows, and becomes greater and greater.

14. He who knows this speech of which this (the mahaduktha) is a development, he is clever. A is the whole of speech, and manifested through different kinds of contact (mutes) and of wind (sibilants), it becomes manifold and different.

15. Speech if uttered in a whisper is breath, if spoken aloud, it is body. Therefore (if whispered) it is almost hidden, for what is incorporeal is almost hidden, and breath is incorporeal. But if spoken aloud, it is body, and therefore it is perceptible, for body is perceptible.


Footnotes

229:1k, speech, taking the form of Anushtubh, and being joined with the Rik, or the Brihatî, touches the true, i. e. Prâna, breath, which is to be meditated on under the form of the Brihatî. Comm.

229:2 Cf. Ait. Âr. II, 2, 3, 4.

229:3 Because the Anushtubh is made out of the Brihatî, the Brihatî being breath, therefore the Anushtubh is called its body.

230:1 A gâthâ is likewise in verse, for instance, prâtah prâtar anritam te vadanti.

230:2 A kumbyâ is a metrical precept, such as, brahmakâryasyâposânam karma kuru, divi ma svâpsîh, &c.

230:3 Such as arthavâdas, explanatory passages, also gossip, such as is common in the king’s palace, laughing at people, &c.

230:4 As diametrically opposed to the flowers and fruits which represent the true. Comm.

230:5 Then that man is left empty here on earth for that enjoyment. Comm.

230:6 He who always says No, keeps everything to himself.

SEVENTH KHANDA.

1. This (nishkevalya-sastra) becomes perfect as a thousand of Brihatîs. It is glory (the glorious Brahman, not the absolute Brahman), it is Indra. Indra is the lord of all beings. He who thus knows Indra as the lord of all beings, departs from this world by loosening the bonds of life 1–so said Mahidâsa Aitareya. Having departed he becomes Indra (or Hiranyagarbha) and shines in those worlds 2.

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2. And with regard to this they say: ‘If a man obtains the other world in this form (by meditating on the prâna, breath, which is the uktha, the hymn of the mahâvrata), then in what form does he obtain this world 1?’

3. Here the blood of the woman is a form of Agni (fire); therefore no one should despise it. And the seed of the man is a form of Âditya (sun); therefore no one should despise it. This self (the woman) gives her self (skin, blood, and flesh) to that self (fat, bone, and marrow), and that self (man) gives his self (fat, bone, and marrow) to this self (skin, blood, and flesh). Thus 2 these two grow together. In this form (belonging to the woman and to fire) he goes to that world (belonging to the man and the sun), and in that form (belonging to man and the sun) he goes to this world (belonging to the woman and to fire 3).


Footnotes

231:1 The commentator explains visrasâ by ‘merging his manhood in the identity with all,’ and doing this while still alive. Visras is the gradual loosening of the body, the decay of old age, but here it has the meaning of vairâgya rather, the shaking off of all that ties the Self to this body or this life.

231:2 The fourteen worlds in the egg of Brahman. Comm. Some hold that he who enters on this path, and becomes deity, does not p. 232 arrive at final liberation. Others, however, show that this identification with the uktha, and through it with the prâna (breath) and Hiranyagarbha, is provisional only, and intended to prepare the mind of the worshipper for the reception of the highest knowledge of Brahman.

EIGHTH KHANDA.

1. Here (with regard to obtaining Hiranyagarbha) there are these Slokas:

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2. The fivefold body into which the indestructible (prâna, breath) enters, that body which the harnessed horses (the senses) draw about, that body where the true of the true (the highest Brahman) follows after, in that body (of the worshipper) all gods 1 become one.

3. That body into which goes the indestructible (the breath) which we have joined (in meditation), proceeding from the indestructible (the highest Brahman), that body which the harnessed horses (the senses) draw about, that body where the true of the true follows after, in that body all gods become one.

4. After separating themselves from the Yes and No of language, and of all that is hard and cruel, poets have discovered (what they sought for); dependent on names they rejoiced in what had been revealed 2.

5. That in which the poets rejoiced (the revealed nature of prâna, breath), in it the gods exist all joined together. Having driven away evil by means of that Brahman (which is hidden in prâna), the enlightened man goes to the Svarga world (becomes one with Hiranyagarbha 3, the universal spirit).

6. No one wishing to describe him (prâna, breath) by speech, describes him by calling him ‘woman,’ ‘neither woman nor man,’ or ‘man’ (all such names applying only to the material body, and not to prâna or breath).

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7. Brahman (as hidden beneath prâna) is called the A; and the I (ego) is gone there (the worshipper should know that he is uktha and prâna).

8. This becomes perfect as a thousand of Brihatî verses, and of that hymn, perfect with a thousand Brihad verses, there are 36,000 syllables. So many are also the thousands of days of human life 1. By means of the syllable of life (the a) alone (which is contained in that thousand of hymns) does a man obtain the day of life (the mahâvrata day, which completes the number of the days in the Gavâmayana, sacrifice), and by means of the day of life (he obtains) the syllable of life.

9. Now there is a chariot of the god (prâna) destroying all desires (for the worlds of Indra, the moon, the earth, all of which lie below the place of Hiranyagarbha). Its front part (the point of the two shafts of the carriage where the yoke is fastened) is speech, its wheels the cars, the horses the eyes, the driver the mind. Prâna (breath) mounts that chariot (and on it, i. e. by means of meditating on Prâna, he reaches Hiranyagarbha).

10. This has been said by a Rishi (Rv. X, 39, 12):–

11. ‘Come hither on that which is quicker than mind,’ and (Rv. VIII, 73, 2) ‘Come hither on that which is quicker than the twinkling of an eye,’ yea, the twinkling of an eye 2.


Footnotes

232:1 The last line on page 246 should, I think, be the penultimate line of page 247.

232:2 The body consists of six elements, and is hence called shâtkausika. Of these, three having a white appearance (fat, bone, and marrow), come from the sun and from man; three having a. red appearance, come from fire and from the woman.

232:3 It is well therefore to shake off this body, and by meditating on the uktha to obtain identity with Hiranyagarbha. Comm.

233:1 The worshipper identifies himself by meditation with prâna, breath, which comprehends all gods. These gods (Agni and the rest) appear in the forms of speech, &c. Comm.

233:2 The prâna, breath, and their identity with it through meditation or worship. Comm.

233:3 Sarvâhammânî hiranyagarbha iti sruteh. Comm.

234:1 Cf. 11, 2, 4, 4.

234:2 The commentator remarks that the worship and meditation on the uktha as prâna, as here taught, is different from the prânavidyâ, the knowledge of prâna, taught in the Khândogya, the Brihadâranyaka, &c., where prâna or life is represented as the object of meditation, without any reference to the uktha or other portions of the Mahâvrata ceremony. He enjoins that the meditation on p. 235 the uktha as prâna should be continued till the desired result, the identification of the worshipper with prâna, is realised, and that it should afterwards be repeated until death, because otherwise the impression might vanish, and the reward of becoming a god, and going to the gods, be lost. Nor is the worship to be confined to the time of the sacrifice, the Mahâvrata, only, but it has to be repeated mentally during life. There are neither certain postures required for it, nor certain times and places. At the time of death, however, he who has become perfect in this meditation on uktha, as the emblem of prâna, will have his reward. Up to a certain point his fate will be the same as that of other people. The activity of the senses will be absorbed in the mind, the activity of the mind in breath, breath in the activity of life, life with breath in the five elements, fire, &c., and these five elements will be absorbed up to their seed in the Paramâtman or Highest Self. This ends the old birth. But then the subtile body, having been absorbed in the Highest Self, rises again in the lotus of the heart, and passing out by the channel of the head, reaches a ray of the sun, whether by day or by night, and goes at the northern or southern course of the sun to the road of Arkis or light. That Arkis, light, and other powers carry him on, and led by these he reaches the Brahma-loka, where he creates to himself every kind of enjoyment, according to his wish. He may create for himself a material body and enjoy all sorts of pleasures, as if in a state of waking, or he may, without such a body, enjoy all pleasures in mind only, as if in a dream. And as he creates these various bodies according to his wish, he creates also living souls in each, endowed with the internal organs of mind, and moves about in them, as he pleases. In fact this world is the same for the devotee (yogin) and for the Highest Self, except that creative power belongs truly to the latter only. At last the devotee gains the highest knowledge, that of the Highest Self in himself, and then, at the dissolution of the Brahma-loka, he obtains complete freedom with Brahman.

FOURTH ADHYÂYA.

FIRST KHANDA.

With this adhyâya begins the real Upanishad, best known under the name of the Aitareya-upanishad, and often separately edited, commented on, and translated. If treated separately, what we call the fourth adhyâya of the second Âranyaka, becomes the first adhyâya of the Upanishad, sometimes also, by counting all adhyâya from the beginning of the Aitareya-âranyaka, the ninth. The divisions adopted by Sâyana, who explains the Upanishad as part of the Âranyaka, and by Sankara, who explains it independently, vary, though Sâyana states that he follows in his commentary on the Upanishad the earlier commentary of Sankara. I have given the divisions adopted by Sâyana, and have marked those of Sankara’s by figures in parentheses, placed at the end of each paragraph. The difference between this Upanishad and the three preceding adhyâyas is easily perceived. Hitherto the answer to the question, Whence this world? had been, From Prâna, prâna meaning breath and life, which was looked upon for a time as a sufficient explanation of all that is. From a psychological point of view this prâna is the conscious self (pragñâtman); in a more mythological form it appears as Hiranyagarbha, ‘the golden germ,’ sometimes even as Indra. It is one of the chief objects of the prânavidyâ, or life-knowledge, to show that the living principle in us is the same as the living principle in the sun, and that by a recognition of their identity and of the true nature of prâna, the devotee, or he who has rightly meditated on prâna during his life, enters after death into the world of Hiranyagarbha.

This is well expressed in the Kaushîtaki-upanishad III, 2, where Indra says to Pratardana: ‘I am Prâna; meditate on me as the conscious self (pragñâtman), as life, as immortality. Life is prâna, prâna is life. Immortality is prâna, prâna is immortality. By prâna he obtains immortality in the other world, by knowledge (pragñâ) true conception. Prâna is consciousness (pragñâ), consciousness is prâna.’

This, however, though it may have satisfied the mind of the Brahmans for a time, was not a final solution. That final solution of the problem not simply of life, but of existence, is given in the Upanishad which teaches that Âtman, the Self, and not Prâna, Life, is the last and only cause of everything. In some places this

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doctrine is laid down in all its simplicity. Our true self, it is said, has its true being in the Highest Self only. In other passages, however, and nearly in the whole of this Upanishad, this simple doctrine is mixed up with much that is mythological, fanciful, and absurd, arthavâda, as the commentators call it, but as it might often be more truly called, anarthavâda, and it is only towards the end that the identity of the self-conscious self with the Highest Self or Brahman is clearly enuntiated.

Adoration to the Highest Self. Hari, Om!

1. Verily, in the beginning 1 all this was Self, one only; there was nothing else blinking 2 whatsoever.

2. He thought: ‘Shall I send forth worlds?’ (1) He sent forth these worlds,

3. Ambhas (water), Marîki (light), Mara (mortal), and Ap (water).

4. That Ambhas (water) is above the heaven, and it is heaven, the support. The Marîkis (the lights) are the sky. The Mara (mortal) is the earth, and the waters under the earth are the Ap world 3. (2)

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5. He thought: ‘There are these worlds; shall I send forth guardians of the worlds?’

He then formed the Purusha (the person) 1, taking him forth from the water 2. (3)

6. He brooded on him 3, and when that person had thus been brooded on, a mouth burst forth 4 like an egg. From the mouth proceeded speech, from speech Agni (fire) 5.

Nostrils burst forth. From the nostrils proceeded scent (prâna) 6, from scent Vâyu (air).

Eyes burst forth. From the eyes proceeded sight, from sight Âditya (sun).

Ears burst forth. From the ears proceeded hearing, from hearing the Dis (quarters of the world),

Skin burst forth. From the skin proceeded hairs (sense of touch), from the hairs shrubs and trees.

The heart burst forth. From the heart proceeded mind, from mind Kandramas (moon).

The navel burst forth. From the navel proceeded the Apâna (the down-breathing) 7, from Apâna death.

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The generative organ burst forth. From the organ proceeded seed, from seed water. (4)


Footnotes

237:1 Before the creation. Comm.

237:2 Blinking, mishat, i. e. living; cf. Rv. X, 190, 2, visvasya mishato vasî, the lord of all living. Sâyana seems to take mishat as a 3rd pers. sing.

237:3 The names of the four worlds are peculiar. Ambhas means water, and is the name given to the highest world, the waters above the heaven, and heaven itself. Marîkis are rays, here used as a name of the sky, antariksha. Mara means dying, and the earth is called so, because all creatures living there must die. Ap is water, here explained as the waters under the earth. The usual division of the world is threefold, earth, sky, and heaven. Here it is fourfold, the fourth division being the water round the earth, or, as the commentator says, under the earth. Ambhas was probably intended for the highest heaven (dyaus), and was then explained both as what is above the heaven and as heaven itself, the support. If we translate, like Sankara and Colebrooke, I the water is the region above the heaven which heaven upholds,’ we should lose heaven altogether, yet heaven, as the third with sky and earth, is essential in the Indian view of the world.

238:1 Purusha; an embodied being, Colebrooke; a being of human shape, Röer; purushâkâram virâtpindam, Sâyana.

238:2 According to the commentator, from the five elements, beginning with water. That person is meant for the Virâg.

238:3 Tap, as the commentator observes, does not mean here and in similar passages to perform austerities (tapas), such as the Krikkhra, the Kândrâyana, &c., but to conceive and to will and to create by mere will. I have translated it by brooding, though this expresses a part only of the meaning expressed by tap.

238:4 Literally, was opened.

238:5 Three things are always distinguished here–the place of each sense, the instrument of the sense, and the presiding deity of the sense.

238:6 Prâna, i. e. ghrânendriya, must be distinguished from the prâna, the up-breathing, one of the five prânas, and likewise from the prâna as the principle of life.

238:7 The Apâna, down-breathing, is generally one of the five vital airs p. 239 which are supposed to keep the body alive. in our place, however, apâna is deglutition and digestion, as we shall see in II, 4, 3, 10.

SECOND KHANDA.

1. Those deities (devatâ), Agni and the rest, after they had been sent forth, fell into this great ocean 1.

Then he (the Self) besieged him, (the person) with hunger and thirst.

2. The deities then (tormented by hunger and thirst) spoke to him (the Self): ‘Allow us a place in which we may rest and eat food 2.’ (1)

He led a cow towards them (the deities). They said: ‘This is not enough.’ He led a horse towards them. They said: ‘This is not enough.’ (2)

He led man 3 towards them. Then they said: ‘Well done 4, indeed.’ Therefore man is well done.

3. He said to them: ‘Enter, each according to his place.’ (3)

4. Then Agni (fire), having become speech, entered the mouth. Vâyu (air), having become scent, entered the nostrils. Âditya (sun), having become sight, entered the eyes. The Dis (regions), having become hearing, entered the ears. The shrubs and trees, having become hairs, entered the skin. Kandramas (the moon), having become mind, entered

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the heart. Death, having become down-breathing, entered the navel. The waters, having become seed, entered the generative organ. (4)

5. Then Hunger and Thirst spoke to him (the Self): ‘Allow us two (a place).’ He said to them: ‘I assign you to those very deities there, I make you co-partners with them.’ Therefore to whatever deity an oblation is offered, hunger and thirst are co-partners in it. (5)


Footnotes

239:1 They fell back into that universal being from whence they had sprung, the first created person, the Virâg. Or they fell into the world, the last cause of which is ignorance.

239:2 To eat food is explained to mean to perceive the objects which correspond to the senses, presided over by the various deities.

239:3 Here purusha is different from the first purusha, the universal person. it can only be intended for intelligent man.

239:4 Sukrita, well done, virtue; or, if taken for svakrita, self-made.

THIRD KHANDA.

1. He thought: ‘There are these worlds and the guardians of the worlds. Let me send forth food for them.’ (1)

He brooded over the water 1. From the water thus brooded on, matter 2 (mûrti) was born. And that matter which was born, that verily was food 3. (2)

2. When this food (the object matter) had thus been sent forth, it wished to flee 4, crying and turning away. He (the subject) tried to grasp it by speech. He could not grasp it by speech. If he had grasped it by speech, man would be satisfied by naming food. (3)

He tried to grasp it by scent (breath). He could not grasp it by scent. If he had grasped it by scent, man would be satisfied by smelling food. (4)

He tried to grasp it by the eye. He could not

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grasp it by the eye. If he had grasped it by the eye, man would be satisfied by seeing food. (5)

He tried to grasp it by the ear. He could not grasp it by the ear. If he had grasped it by the ear, man would be satisfied by hearing food. (6)

He tried to grasp it by the skin. He could not grasp it by the skin. If he had grasped it by the skin, man would be satisfied by touching food. (7)

He tried to grasp it by the mind. He could not grasp it by the mind. If he had grasped it by the mind, man would be satisfied by thinking food. (8)

He tried to grasp it by the generative organ. He could not grasp it by the organ. If he had grasped it by the organ, man would be satisfied by sending forth food. (9)

He tried to grasp it by the down-breathing (the breath which helps to swallow food through the mouth and to carry it off through the rectum, the pâyvindriya). He got it.

3. Thus it is Vâyu (the getter 1) who lays hold of food, and the Vâyu is verily Annâyu (he who gives life or who lives by food). (10)

4. He thought: ‘How can all this be without me?’

5. And then he thought: ‘By what way shall I get there 2?’

6. And then he thought: ‘If speech names, if scent smells, if the eye sees, if the ear hears, if the skin feels, if the mind thinks, if the off-breathing digests, if the organ sends forth, then what am I?’ (11)

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7. Then opening the suture of the skull, he got in by that door.

8. That door is called the Vidriti (tearing asunder), the Nândana (the place of bliss).

9. There are three dwelling-places for him, three dreams; this dwelling-place (the eye), this dwelling-place (the throat), this dwelling-place (the heart) 1. (12)

10. When born (when the Highest Self had entered the body) he looked through all things, in order to see whether anything wished to proclaim here another (Self). He saw this person only (himself) as the widely spread Brahman. ‘I saw it,’ thus he said 2; (13)

Therefore he was Idam-dra (seeing this).

11. Being Idamdra by name, they call him Indra mysteriously. For the Devas love mystery, yea, they love mystery. (14)


Footnotes

240:1 The water, as mentioned before, or the five elements.

240:2 Mûrti, for mûrtti, form, Colebrooke; a being of organised form, Röer; vrîhiyavâdirûpâ mûshakâdirûpâ ka mûrtih, i.e. vegetable food for men, animal food for cats, &c.

240:3 Offered food, i.e. objects for the Devatâs and the senses in the body.

240:4 Atyagighâmsat, atisayena hantum gantum aikkhat. Sâyana.

241:1 An attempt to derive vâyu from vî, to get.

241:2 Or, by which of the two ways shall I get in, the one way being from the top of the foot (cf. Ait. Âr. II, 1, 4, 1), the other from the skull? Comm.

242:1 Passages like this must always have required an oral interpretation, but it is by no means certain that the explanation given in the commentaries represents really the old traditional interpretation. Sâyana explains the three dwelling-places as the right eye, in a state of waking; as the throat, in a state of dreaming; as the heart, in a state of profound sleep. Sankara explains them as the right eye, the inner mind, and the ether in the heart. Sâyana allows another interpretation of the three dwelling-places being the body of the father, the body of the mother, and one’s own body. The three dreams or sleeps he explains by waking, dreaming, and profound sleep, and he remarks that waking too is called a dream as compared with the true awakening, which is the knowledge of Brahman. In the last sentence the speaker, when repeating three times ‘this dwelling-place,’ is supposed to point to his right eye, the throat, and the heart. This interpretation is supported by a passage in the Brahma-upanishad, Netre gâgaritam vidyât kanthe svapnam samâdiset, sushuptam hridayasya tu.

242:2 In this passage, which is very obscure, Sankara fails us, either because, as Ânandagñâna says, he thought the text was too easy to require any explanation, or because the writers of the MSS. left out p. 243 the passage. Ânandagñâna explains: ‘He looked through all creatures, he identified himself with them, and thought he was a man, blind, happy, &c.; or, as it is elsewhere expressed, he developed forms and names. And how did this mistake arise? Because he did not see the other, the true Self;’ or literally, ‘Did he see the other Self?’ which is only a figure of speech to convey the meaning that he did not see it. The particle iti is then to be taken in a causal sense, (i. e. he did so, because what else could he have wished to proclaim?) But he allows another explanation, viz. ‘He considered all beings, whether they existed by themselves or not, and after having considered, he arrived at the conclusion, What shall I call different from the true Self?’ The real difficulties, however, are not removed by these explanations. First of all, we expect vâvadisham before iti, and secondly, unless anyam refers to âtmânam, we expect anyad. My own translation is literal, but I am not certain that it conveys the true meaning. One might understand it as implying that the Self looked about through all things, in order to find out, ‘What does wish to proclaim here another Self?’ And when he saw there was nothing which did not come from himself, then he recognised that the Purusha, the person he had sent forth, or, as we should say, the person he had created, was the developed Brahman, was the Âtman, was himself. Sâyana explains vâvadishat by vadishyâmi, but before iti the third person cannot well refer to the subject of vyaikshat.

FIFTH ADHYÂYA.

FIRST KHANDA.

1. Let the women who are with child move away 1!

2. Verily, from the beginning he (the self) is in man as a germ, which is called seed.

3. This (seed), which is strength gathered from all the limbs of the body, he (the man) bears as self in his self (body). When he commits the seed to the woman, then he (the father) causes it to be born. That is his first birth. (1)

4. That seed becomes the self of the woman, as

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if one of her own limbs. Therefore it does not injure her.

5. She nourishes his (her husband’s) self (the son) within her. (2) She who nourishes, is to be nourished.

6. The woman bears the germ. He (the father) elevates the child even before the birth, and immediately after 1.

7. When he thus elevates the child both before and after his birth, he really elevates his own self,

8. For the continuation of these worlds (men). For thus are these worlds continued.

9. This is his second birth. (3)

10. He (the son), being his self, is then placed in his stead for (the performance of) all good works.

11. But his other self (the father), having done all he has to do, and having reached the full measure of his life, departs.

12. And departing from hence he is born again. That is his third birth.

13. And this has been declared by a Rishi (Rv. IV, 27, 1): (4)

14. ‘While dwelling in the womb, I discovered all the births of these Devas. A hundred iron strongholds kept me, but I escaped quickly down like a falcon.’

15. Vâmadeva, lying in the womb, has thus declared this. (5)

And having this knowledge he stepped forth, after this dissolution of the body, and having obtained all his desires in that heavenly world, became immortal, yea, he became immortal. (6)


Footnotes

243:1 Some MSS. begin this adhyâya with the sentence apakrâmantu garbhinyah, may the women who are with child walk away! It is counted as a paragraph.

244:1 By nourishing the mother, and by performing certain ceremonies both before and after the birth of a child.

SIXTH ADHYÂYA.

FIRST KHANDA.

1. Let the women go back to their place.

2. Who is he whom 1 we meditate on as the Self? Which 2 is the Self?

3. That by which we see (form), that by which we hear (sound), that by which we perceive smells, that by which we utter speech, that by which we distinguish sweet and not sweet, (1) and what comes from the heart and the mind, namely, perception, command, understanding, knowledge, wisdom, seeing, holding, thinking, considering, readiness (or suffering), remembering, conceiving, willing, breathing, loving, desiring?

4. No, all these are various names only of knowledge (the true Self). (2)

5. And that Self, consisting of (knowledge), is Brahman (m.) 3, it is Indra, it is Pragâpati 4. All these Devas, these five great elements, earth, air, ether, water, fire, these and those which are, as it were, small and mixed 5, and seeds of this kind and that kind, born from eggs, born from the womb., born from heat, born from germs 6, horses, cows, men, elephants, and whatsoever breathes, whether walking or flying, and what is immoveable–all that is led (produced) by knowledge (the Self).

6. It rests on knowledge (the Self). The world

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is led (produced) by knowledge (the Self). Knowledge is its cause 1.

7. Knowledge is Brahman. (3)

8. He (Vâmadeva), having by this conscious self stepped forth from this world, and having obtained all desires in that heavenly world, became immortal, yea, he became immortal. Thus it is, Om. (4)


Footnotes

245:1 I read ko yam instead of ko ‘yam.

245:2 Or, Which of the two, the real or the phenomenal, the nirupâdhika or sopâdhika?

245:3 Hiranyagarbha. Comm.

245:4 Virâg. Comm.

245:5 Serpents, &c., says the commentary.

245:6 Cf. Kh. Up. VI, 3, 1, where the svedaga, born from heat or perspiration, are not mentioned.

246:1 We have no words to distinguish between pragñâ, state of knowing, and pragñâna, act of knowing. Both are names of the Highest Brahman, which is the beginning and end (pratishthâ) of everything that exists or seems to exist.

SEVENTH ADHYÂYA 2.

FIRST KHANDA.

1. My speech rests in the mind, my mind rests in speech 3. Appear to me (thou, the Highest Self)! You (speech and mind) are the two pins 4 (that hold the wheels) of the Veda. May what I have learnt not forsake me 5. I join day and night with what I have learnt 6. I shall speak of the real, I shall speak the true. May this protect me, may this protect the teacher! May it protect me, may it protect the teacher, yea, the teacher!


Footnotes

246:2 This seventh adhyâya contains a propitiatory prayer (sântikaro mantrah). It is frequently left out in the MSS. which contain the Aitareya-upanishad with Sankara’s commentary, and Dr. Roer has omitted it in his edition. Sâyana explains it in his commentary on the Aitareya-âranyaka; and in one MS. of Sankara’s commentary on the Aitareya-upanishad, which is in my possession, the seventh adhyâya is added with the commentary of Mâdhavâmâtya, the Âgñâpâlaka of Vîrabukka-mahârâga.

246:3 The two depend on each other.

246:4 Ant, explained by the commentator as ânayanasamartha.

246:5 Cf. Kh. Up. IV, 2, 5.

246:6 I repeat it day and night so that I may not forget it.

THIRD ÂRANYAKA 1.

FIRST ADHYÂYA.

FIRST KHANDA.

1. Next follows the Upanishad of the Samhitâ 2.

2. The former half is the earth, the latter half the heaven, their union the air 3, thus says Mândukeya; their union is the ether, thus did Mâkshavya teach it.

3. That air is not considered 4 independent 5, therefore I do not agree with his (Mandûka’s) son.

4. Verily, the two are the same, therefore air is

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considered independent, thus says Âgastya. For it is the same, whether they say air or ether 1.

5. So far with reference to deities (mythologically); now with reference to the body (physiologically):

6. The former half is speech, the latter half is mind, their union breath (prâna), thus says Sûravîra 2ndukeya.

7. But his eldest son said: The former half is mind, the latter half speech. For we first conceive with the mind indeed 3, and then we utter with speech. Therefore the former half is indeed mind, the latter half speech, but their union is really breath.

8. Verily, it is the same with both, the father (Mândukeya) and the son 4.

9. This (meditation as here described), joined 5 with mind, speech, and breath, is (like) a chariot drawn by two horses and one horse between them (prashtivâhana).

10. And he who thus knows this union, becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives his full age.

11. Now all this comes from the Mândukeyas.


Footnotes

247:1 This last portion of the Upanishad is found in the MS. discovered by Dr. Bühler in Kashmir, and described by him in the journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1877, p. 36. I have collated it, so far as it was possible to read it, many lines being either broken off altogether, or almost entirely obliterated.

247:2 Samhitâ is the sacred text in which all letters are closely joined. The joining together of two letters is called their samhitâ; the first letter of a joined group the pûrvarûpa (n.), the second the uttararûpa. For instance, in agnim île the m is pûrvarûpa, the î uttararûpa, and mî their samhitâ or union.

247:3 As in worshipping the Sâlagrâma stone, we really worship Vishnu, so we ought to perceive the earth, the heaven, and the air when we pronounce the first and the second letters of a group, and that group itself.

247:4 Mene has here been taken as 3rd pers. sing. perf. passive. The commentator, however, explains it as an active verb, niskitavân.

247:5 Because it is included in the ether, not the ether in the air. Comm.

SECOND KHANDA.

1. Next comes the meditation as taught by Sâkalya.

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2. The first half is the earth, the second half heaven, their uniting the rain, the uniter Parganya 1.

3. And so it is when he (Parganya) rains thus strongly, without ceasing, day and night 2,

4. Then they say also (in ordinary language), ‘Heaven and earth have come together.’

5. So much with regard to the deities; now with regard to the body:–

6. Every man is indeed like an egg 3. There are two halves 4 (of him), thus they say: ‘This half is the earth, that half heaven.’ And there between them is the ether (the space of the mouth), like the ether between heaven and earth. In this ether there (in the mouth) the breath is fixed, as in that other ether the air is fixed. And as there are those three luminaries (in heaven), there are these three luminaries in man.

7. As there is that sun in heaven, there is this eye in the head. As there is that lightning in the sky, there is this heart in the body; as there is that fire on earth, there is this seed in the member.

8. Having thus represented the self (body) as the whole world, Sâkalya said: This half is the earth, that half heaven.

9. He who thus knows this union, becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of countenance,

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and the world of Svarga. He lives his full age.

THIRD KHAND1.

1. Next come the reciters of the Nirbhug2.

2. Nirbhuga abides on earth, Pratrinna in heaven, the Ubhayamantarena in the sky.

3. Now, if any one should chide him who recites the Nirbhuga, let him answer: ‘Thou art fallen from the two lower places 3.’ If any one should chide him who recites the Pratrinna, let him answer: ‘Thou art fallen from the two higher places 4.’ But he who recites the Ubhayamantarena, there is no chiding him.

4. For when he turns out the Sandhi (the union of words), that is the form of Nirbhug5; and when be pronounces two syllables pure (without modification), that is the form of Pratrinn6. This comes

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first 1. By the Ubhayamantara (what is between the two) both are fulfilled (both the sandhi and the pada).

5. Let him who wishes for proper food say the Nirbhuga; let him who wishes for Svarga, say the Pratrinna; let him who wishes for both say the Ubhayamantarena.

6. Now if another man (an enemy) should chide him who says the Nirbhuga, let him say to him: ‘Thou hast offended the earth, the deity; the earth, the deity, will strike thee.’

If another man should chide him who says the Pratrinna, let him say to him: ‘Thou hast offended heaven, the deity; heaven, the deity, will strike thee.’

If another man should chide him who says the Ubhayamantarena, let him say to him: ‘Thou hast offended the sky, the deity; the sky, the deity, will strike thee.’

7. And whatever the reciter shall say to one who speaks to him or does not speak to him, depend upon it, it will come to pass.

8. But to a Brâhmana let him not say anything except what is auspicious.

9. Only he may curse a Brâhmana in excessive wealth 2.

10. Nay, not even in excessive wealth should he curse a Brâhmana, but he should say, ‘I bow before Brâhmanas,’–thus says Sûravîra Mândûkeya.


Footnotes

248:1 Both views are tenable, for it is not the actual air and ether which are meditated on, but their names, as declared and explained in this peculiar act of worship. We should read âkâsasketi, a reading confirmed both by the commentary and by the Kashmir MS.

248:2 The man among heroes. Comm.

248:3 The Kashmir MS. reads manasaivâgre.

248:4 Both views are admissible. Comm.

248:5 Prânasamhitah, Kashmir MS.

249:1 If i is followed by a, the i is changed to y, and both are united as ya. Here a is the cause which changes i into y. Thus Parganya, the god of rain, is the cause which unites earth and heaven into rain. Comm.

249:2 When it rains incessantly, heaven and earth seem to be one in rain.

249:3 Ândam, andasadrisam. Comm.

249:4 The one half from the feet to the lower jaw, the other half from the upper jaw to the skull. Comm.

250:1 Cf. Rig-veda-prâtisâkhya, ed. Max Müller, p. iii, and Nachträge, p. ii.

250:2 Nirbhuga(n) is the recitation of the Veda without intervals, therefore the same as Samhitâ. Pratrinna is the recitation of each word by itself (pada-pâtha); Ubhayamantarena, the between the two, is the intertwining of Samhitâ and Pada-pâtha, the so-called Krama-pâtha. By reciting the Samhitâ inattentively, one may use forms which belong to the Pada-text; and by reciting the Pada inattentively, one may use forms which belong to the Samhitâ-text. But in reciting the Krama both the Samhitâ and Pada forms are used together, and therefore mistakes are less likely to happen.

250:3 From earth and sky. Cf. Kh. Up. II, 22, 3.

250:4 From the sky and from heaven.

250:5 Nirbhuga may mean without arms, as if the arms of the words were taken away, or with two arms stretched out, the two words forming, as it were, two arms to one body.

250:6 Pratrinna means cut asunder, every word being separated from the others.

251:1 The words were first each separate, before they were united according to the laws of Sandhi.

251:2 He may curse him, if he is exceeding rich; or he may wish him the curse of excessive wealth; or he may curse him, if something great depends on it.

FOURTH KHANDA.

1. Next follow the imprecations 1.

2. Let him know that breath 2 is the beam (on which the whole house of the body rests).

3. If any one (a Brâhmana or another man) should chide him, who by meditation has become that breath as beam 3, then, if he thinks himself strong, he says: ‘I grasped the breath, the beam, well; thou dost not prevail against me who have grasped the breath as the beam.’ Let him say to him: ‘Breath, the beam, will forsake thee.’

4. But if he thinks himself not strong, let him say to him: ‘Thou couldst not grasp him who wishes to grasp the breath as the beam. Breath, the beam, will forsake thee.’

5. And whatever the reciter shall say to one who speaks to him or does not speak to him, depend upon it, it will come to pass. But to a Brâhmana let him not say anything except what is auspicious. Only he may curse a Brâhmana in excessive wealth. Nay, not even in excessive wealth should he curse a Brâhmana, but he should say, ‘I bow before Brâhmanas,’–thus says Sûravîra Mândûkeya.


Footnotes

252:1 The commentator explains anuvyâhâra, not as imprecations, but as referring to those who leach or use the imprecations, such imprecations being necessary to guard against the loss of the benefits accruing from the meditation and worship here described; such teachers say what follows.

252:2 Breath, the union of mind and speech, as explained before. This is the opinion of Sthavira Sâkalya, cf. III, 2, 1, 1.

252:3 If he should tell him that he did not meditate on breath properly.

FIFTH KHANDA.

1. Now those who repeat the Nirbhuga say:

2. ‘The former half 1 is the first syllable, the latter half the second syllable, and the space between the first and second halves is the Samhitâ (union).’

3. He who thus knows this Samhitâ (union), becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives his full age.

4. Now Hrasva Mândûkeya says: ‘We reciters of Nirbhuga say, “Yes, the former half is the first syllable, and the latter half the second syllable, but the Samhitâ is the space between the first and second halves in so far as by it one turns out the union (sandhi), and knows what is the accent and what is not 2, and distinguishes what is the mora and what is not.”‘

5. He who thus knows this Samhitâ (union), becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives his full age.

6. Now his middle son, the child of his mother Prâtibodhî 3, says: ‘One pronounces these two syllables letter by letter, without entirely separating

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them, and without entirely uniting them 1. Then that mora between the first and second halves, which indicates the union, that is the Sâman (evenness, sliding). I therefore hold Sâman only to be the Samhitâ (union).

7. This has also been declared by a Rishi (Rv. II, 23, 16):–

8. ‘O Brihaspati, they know nothing higher than Sâman.’

9. He who thus knows this Samhitâ (union), becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives his full age.


Footnotes

253:1 As spoken of before, III, 1, 1, 1.

253:2 In agnim île, île by itself has no accent, but as joined by sandhi with agnim, its first syllable becomes svarita, its second prakita. In tava it, the vowel i is a short mora or mâtrâ; but if joined with va, it vanishes, and becomes long e, tavet. Comm.

253:3 Prâtîbodhîputra, the son of Prâtîbodhî, she being probably one out of several wives of Hrasva. Another instance of this metronymic nomenclature occurred in Krishna Devakîputra, Kh. Up. III, 7, 6. The Kashmir MS. reads Prâkîbodhî, but Pratibodha is a recognised name in Gana Vidâdi, and the right reading is probably Prâtibodhî. The same MS. leaves out putra âha.

254:1 So that the ê in tavet should neither be one letter e, nor two letters a + i, but something between the two, enabling us to hear a + i in the pronunciation of ê.

SIXTH KHANDA.

1. Târukshya 2 said: ‘The Samhitâ (union) is formed by means of the Brihat and Rathantara 3 Sâmans.’

2. Verily, the Rathantara Sâman is speech, the Brihat Sâman is breath. By both, by speech and breath, the Samhitâ is formed 4.

3. For this Upanishad (for acquiring from his teacher the knowledge of this Samhitâ of speech and breath) Târukshya guards (his teacher’s) cows a whole year.

4. For it alone Târukshya guards the cows a whole year.

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5. This has also been declared by a Rishi (Rv. X, 181, 1; and Rv. X, 181, 2):–

6. ‘Vasishtha carried hither the Rathantara; ‘Bharadvâga brought hither the Brihat of Agni.’

7. He who thus knows this Samhitâ (union), becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives his full age.

8. Kauntharavya said: ‘Speech is united with breath, breath with the blowing air, the blowing air with the Visvedevas, the Visvedevas with the heavenly world, the heavenly world with Brahman. That Samhitâ is called the gradual Samhitâ.’

9. He who knows this gradual Samhitâ (union), becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of countenance, and the world of Svarga, in exactly the same manner as this Samhitâ, i.e. gradually.

10. If that worshipper, whether for his own sake or for that of another, recites (the Samhitâ), let him know when he is going to recite, that this Samhitâ went up to heaven, and that it will be even so with those who by knowing it become Devas. May it always be so!

11. He who thus knows this Samhitâ (union), becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives his full age.

12. Pañkâlakanda said: ‘The Samhitâ (union, composition) is speech.’

13. Verily, by speech the Vedas, by speech the metres are composed. Friends unite through speech, all beings unite through speech; therefore speech is everything here 1.

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14. With regard to this (view of speech being more than breath), it should be borne in mind that when we thus repeat (the Veda) or speak, breath is (absorbed) in speech; speech swallows breath. And when we are silent or sleep, speech is (absorbed) in breath; breath swallows speech. The two swallow each other. Verily, speech is the mother, breath the son.

15. This has been declared also by a Rishi (Rv. X, 114, 4):–

16. ‘There is one bird; (as wind) he has entered the sky; (as breath or living soul) he saw this whole world. With my ripe mind I saw him close to me (in the heart); the mother (licks or) absorbs him (breath), and he absorbs the mother (speech).’

17. He who thus knows this Samhitâ (union), becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives his full age.

18. Next follows the Pragâpati-Samhitâ.

19. The former half is the wife, the latter half the man; the result of their union the son; the act of their union the begetting; that Samhitâ is Aditi (indestructible).

20. For Aditi (indestructible) is all this whatever there is, father, mother, son, and begetting.

21. This has also been declared by a Rishi (Rv. I, 189, 10)–

22. ‘Aditi is mother, is father, is son.’

23. He who thus knows this Samhitâ (union), becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives his full age.


Footnotes

254:2 The Kashmir MS. reads Târkshya, a name used before as the title of a hymn (Ait. Âr. I, 5, 2, 8). Here Târakshya seems preferable, see Pân. IV, 1, 105.

254:3 See Ait. Âr. I, 4, 2, 1-4.

254:4 These two, the Brihat and Rathantara, are required for the Prishthastotra in the Agnishtoma, and they are to remind the worshipper that speech and breath are required for all actions.

255:1 Everything can be obtained by speech in this life and in the next. Comm.

SECOND ADHYÂYA 1.

FIRST KHANDA.

1. Sthavira Sâkalya said that breath is the beam 2, and as the other beams rest on the house-beam, thus the eye, the ear, the mind, the speech, the senses, the body, the whole self rests on this 3 breath.

2. Of that self the breathing is like the sibilants, the bones like the mutes, the marrow like the vowels, and the fourth part, flesh, blood, and the rest, like the semivowels 4,–so said Hrasva Mândûkeya.

3. To us it was said to be a triad only 5.

4. Of that triad, viz. bones, marrow, and joints, there are 360 (parts) on this side (the right), and 360 on that side (the left). They make 720 together, and 720 6 are the days and nights of the year. Thus that self which consists of sight, hearing, metre, mind, and speech is like unto the days.

5. He who thus knows this self, which consists of sight, hearing, metre, mind, and speech, as like unto the days, obtains union, likeness, or nearness with the days, has sons and cattle, and lives his full age.


Footnotes

257:1 In the first adhyâya meditations suggested by samhitâ, pada, and krama have been discussed. Now follow meditations suggested by certain classes of letters.

257:2 Ait. Âr. III, 1, 4.

257:3 The Kashmir MS. reads etasmin prâne. The self here is meant for the body, and yet it seems to be different from sarîra.

257:4 The Kashmir MS. writes antastha without visarga, while it is otherwise most careful in writing all sibilants.

257:5 Sâkalya, as we saw, told his disciples that there were three classes only, not four. Comm. The Kashmir MS. reads trayam tv eva na ityetat proktam.

257:6 The Kashmir MS, reads sapta vimsatis ka satâni.

SECOND KHANDA.

1. Next comes Kauntharavya:

2. There are 360 syllables (vowels), 360 sibilants (consonants), 360, groups.

3. What we called syllables are the days, what we called sibilants are the nights, what we called groups are the junctions of days and nights. So far with regard to the gods (the days).

4. Now with regard to the body. The syllables which we explained mythologically, are physiologically the bones; the sibilants which we explained mythologically, are physiologically the marrow.

5. Marrow is the real breath (life), for marrow is seed, and without breath (life) seed is not sown. Or when it is sown without breath (life), it will decay, it will not grow.

6. The groups which we explained mythologically, are physiologically the joints.

7. Of that triad, viz. bones, marrow, and joints, there are 540 (parts) on this side (the right), and 540 on that side (the left). They make 1080 together, and 1080 are the rays of the sun. They make the Brihatî verses and the day (of the Mahâvrata) 1.

8. Thus that self which consists of sight, hearing, metre, mind, and speech is like unto the syllables.

9. He who knows this self which consists of sight, hearing, metre, mind, and speech, as like unto syllables, obtains union, likeness, or nearness with the syllables, has sons and cattle, and lives his full age.


Footnotes

258:1 There are in the Mahâvrata eighty tristichs of Brihatîs, and as each Brihatî is decreed to consist of thirty-six syllables, ten would give 360 syllables, and three times ten, 1080. Comm.

THIRD KHANDA.

1. Bâdhva 1 says, there are four persons (to be meditated on and worshipped).

2. The person of the body, the person of the metres, the person of the Veda, and the Great person.

3. What we call the person of the body is this corporeal self. Its essence is the incorporeal conscious self.

4. What we call the person of the metres is this collection of letters (the Veda). Its essence is the vowel a.

5. What we call the person of the Veda is (the mind) by which we know the Vedas, the Rig-veda, Yagur-veda, and Sâma-veda. Its essence is Brahman 2(m.)

6. Therefore let one chose a Brahman-priest who is full of Brahman (the Veda), and is able to see any flaw in the sacrifice.

7. What we call the Great person is the year, which causes some beings to fall together, and causes others to grow up. Its essence is yonder sun.

8. One should know that the incorporeal conscious self and yonder sun are both one and the same. Therefore the sun appears to every man singly (and differently).

9. This has also been declared by a Rishi (Rv. I, 115, 1):–

10. ‘The bright face of the gods arose, the eye of Mitra, Varuna, and Agni; it filled heaven and earth

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and the sky,–the sun is the self of all that rests and moves.’

11. ‘This I think to be the regular Samhitâ as conceived by me,’ thus said Bâdhva.

12. For the Bahvrikas consider him (the self) in the great hymn (mahad uktha), the Adhvaryus in the sacrificial fire, the Khandogas in the Mahâvrata ceremony. Him they see in this earth, in heaven, in the air, in the ether, in the water, in herbs, in trees, in the moon, in the stars, in all beings. Him alone they call Brahman.

13. That self which consists of sight, hearing, metre, mind, and speech is like unto the year.

14. He who recites to another that self which consists of sight, hearing, metre, mind, and speech, and is like unto the year,


Footnotes

259:1 Instead of Bâdhya, the commentary and the Kashmir MS. read Bâdhva.

259:2 Hiranyagarbha, with whom he who knows the Veda becomes identified. Comm.

FOURTH KHANDA.

1. To him the Vedas yield no more milk, he has no luck in what he has learnt (from his Guru); he does not know the path of virtue.

2. This has also been declared by a Rishi (Rv. X, 71, 6):–

3. ‘He who has forsaken the friend (the Veda), that knows his friends, in his speech there is no luck. Though he hears, he hears in vain, for he does not know the path of virtue.’

4. Here it is clearly said that he has no luck in what he has learnt, and that he does not know the path of virtue.

5. Therefore let no one who knows this, lay the sacrificial fire (belonging to the Mahâvrata) for another, let him not sing the Sâmans of the Mahâvrata

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for another, let him not recite the Sastras of that day for another.

6. However, let him willingly do this for a father or for an Âkârya; for that is done really for himself.

7. We have said that the incorporeal conscious self and the sun are one 1. When these two become separated 2, the sun is seen as if it were the moon 3; no rays spring from it; the sky is red like madder; the patient cannot retain the wind, his head smells bad like a raven’s nest:–let him know then that his self (in the body) is gone, and that he will not live very long 4.

8. Then whatever he thinks he has to do,. let him do it, and let him recite the following hymns: Yad anti yak ka dûrake (Rv. IX, 67, 21-27); Ad it pratnasya retasah (Rv. VIII, 6, 30); Yatra brahmâ pavamâna (Rv. IX, 113, 6-11); Ud vayam tamasas pari (Rv. I, 50, 10).

9. Next, when the sun is seen pierced, and seems like the nave of a cart-wheel, when he sees his own shadow pierced, let him know then that it is so (as stated before, i. e. that he is going to die soon).

10. Next, when he sees himself in a mirror or in the water with a crooked head, or without a head 5, or when his pupils are seen inverted 6 or not straight, let him know then that it is so.

p. 262

11. Next, let him cover his eyes and watch, then threads are seen as if falling together 1. But if he does not see them, let him know then that it is so.

12. Next, let him cover his ears and listen, and there will be a sound as if of a burning fire or of a carriage 2. But if he does not hear it, let him know then that it is so.

13. Next, when fire looks blue like the neck of a peacock 3, or when he sees lightning in a cloudless sky, or no lightning in a clouded sky, or when he sees as it were bright rays in a dark cloud, let him know then that it is so.

14. Next, when he sees the ground as if it were burning, let him know that it is so.

15. These are the visible signs (from 7-14).

16. Next come the dreams 4.

17. If he sees a black man with black teeth, and that man kills him; or a boar kills him; a monkey jumps on 5 him; the wind carries him along quickly; having swallowed gold he spits it out 6; he eats honey; he chews stalks; he carries a red lotus; he drives with asses and boars; wearing a wreath of red flowers (naladas) he drives a black cow with a black calf, facing the south 7,

18. If a man sees any one of these (dreams), let

p. 263

him fast, and cook a pot of milk, sacrifice it, accompanying each oblation with a verse of the Râtri hymn (Rv. X, 12 7), and then, after having fed the Brâhmanas, with other food (prepared at his house) eat himself the (rest of the) oblation.

19. Let him know that the person within all beings, not heard here 1, not reached, not thought, not subdued, not seen, not understood, not classed, but hearing, thinking, seeing, classing, sounding, understanding, knowing, is his Self.


Footnotes

261:1 Ait. Âr. III, 2, 3, 8.

261:2 This separation of the self of the sun and the conscious self within us is taken as a sign of approaching death, and therefore a number of premonitory symptoms are considered in this place.

261:3 ἥλιος μηνοειδής Xen. Hist. gr. 4, 3, 10.

261:4 The Kashmir MS. reads gîvayishyati.

261:5 The Kashmir MS. reads gihmasirasamsarîram âtmânam.

261:6 A white pupil in a black eye-ball. Comm.

262:1 The Kashmir MS. reads batirakâni sampatantîva.

262:2 See Kh. Up. III, 13, 8. The Kashmir MS. and the commentary give the words rathasyevopabdis, which are left out in the printed text.

262:3 The Kashmir MS. reads mayûragrîvâ ameghe.

262:4 The Kashmir MS. reads svapnah.

262:5 The Kashmir MS. reads âskandati.

262:6 The Kashmir MS. reads avagirati.

262:7 The commentator separates the last dream, so as to bring their number to ten.

263:1 The Kashmir MS. reads sa yatas sruto.

FIFTH KHAND2

1. Now next the Upanishad of the whole speech.

True all these are Upanishads of the whole speech, but this they call so (chiefly).

2. The mute consonants represent the earth, the sibilants the sky, the vowels heaven.

The mute consonants represent Agni (fire), the sibilants air, the vowels the sun.

The mute consonants represent the Rig-veda, the sibilants the Yagur-veda, the vowels the Sâma-veda.

The mute consonants represent the eye, the sibilants the ear, the vowels the mind.

The mute consonants represent the up-breathing, the sibilants the down-breathing, the vowels the back-breathing.

3. Next comes this divine lute (the human body, made by the gods). The lute made by man is an imitation of it.

4. As there is a head of this, so there is a head of that (lute, made by man). As there is a stomach

p. 264

of this, so there is the cavity 1 (In the board) of that. As there is a tongue of this, so there is a tongue 2 in that. As there are fingers of this, so there are strings of that 3. As there are vowels of this, so there are tones of that. As there are consonants of this, so there are touches of that. As this is endowed with sound and firmly strung, so that is endowed with sound and firmly strung. As this is covered with a hairy skin, so that is covered with a hairy skin.

5. Verily, in former times they covered a lute with a hairy skin.

6. He who knows this lute made by the Devas (and meditates on it), is willingly listened to, his glory fills the earth, and wherever they speak Âryan languages, there they know him.

7. Next follows the verse, called vâgrasa, the essence of speech. When a man reciting or speaking in an assembly does not please, let him say this verse:

8. ‘May the queen of all speech, who is covered, as it were, by the lips, surrounded by teeth, as if by spears, who is a thunderbolt, help me to speak well.’ This is the vâgrasa, the essence of speech.


Footnotes

263:2 After having inserted the preceding chapter on omina and the concluding paragraph on the highest knowledge, he now returns to the meditation on the letters.

264:1 The Kashmir MS. reads udara evam, &c.

264:2 Vâdanam, what makes the instrument speak, hastena. Comm.

264:3 Here the order is inverted in the text.

SIXTH KHANDA.

1. Next Krishna-Hârita 4 confided this Brâhman5 concerning speech to him (his pupil):

p. 265

2. Pragâpati, the year, after having sent forth all creatures, burst. He put himself together again by means of khandas (Vedas). Because he put himself together again by means of khandas, therefore (the text of the Veda) is called Samhitâ (put together).

3. Of that Samhitâ the letter n is the strength, the letter sh the breath and self (Âtman).

4. He who knows the Rik verses and the letters n and sh for every Samhitâ, he knows the Samhitâ with strength and breath. Let him know that this is the life of the Samhitâ.

5. If the pupil asks, ‘Shall I say it with the letter n or without it? ‘let the teacher say, ‘With the letter n.’ And if he asks, ‘Shall I say it with the letter sh or without it?’ let the teacher say, ‘With the letter sh 1.’

6. Hrasva Mândûkeya said: ‘If we here recite the verses according to the Samhitâ (attending to the necessary changes of n and s into n and sh 2), and if we say the adhyâya of Mândûkeya (Ait. Âr. III, 1), then the letters n and sh (strength and breath) have by this been obtained for us.’

7. Sthavira Sâkalya said: ‘If we recite the verses according to the Samhitâ, and if we say the adhyâya of Mândûkeya, then the letters n and sh have by this been obtained for us.’

8. Here the Rishis, the Kâvasheyas 3, knowing

p. 266

this, said: ‘Why should we repeat (the Veda), why should we sacrifice? We offer as a sacrifice breath in speech, or speech in breath. What is the beginning (of one), that is the end (of the other).’

9. Let no one tell these Samhitâs (Ait. Âr. III, 1-III, 2) to one who is not a resident pupil, who has not been with his teacher at least one year, and who is not himself to become an instructor 1. Thus say the teachers, yea, thus say the teachers.

, and then rest in another place finishing it.

11. ‘And in the place where he reads this, he should not read p. 268 anything else, though he may read this (the Mahâvrata) where he has read something else.

12. ‘No one should bathe and become a snâtaka 1c who does not read this. Even if he has read many other things, he should not become a snâtaka if he has not read this.

13. ‘Nor should he forget it, and even if he should forget anything else, he should not forget this.

14. ‘No, he should never forget this.

15. ‘If he does not forget this, it will be enough for himself (or for acquiring a knowledge of the Self).

16. ‘It is enough, let him know this to be true.

17. ‘Let him who knows this not communicate, nor dine, nor amuse himself with any one who does not know it.’

Then follow some more rules as to the reading of the Veda in general:

18. ‘When the old water that stood round the roots of trees is dried up (after about the month of Pausha, January to February 2c) he should not read; nor (at any time) in the morning or in the afternoon, when the shadows meet (he should begin at sunrise so soon as the shadows divide, and end in the evening before they fall together). Nor should he read 3c when a cloud has risen; and when there is an unseasonable rain (after the months of Srâvana and Bhâdrapada, August and September 4c) he should stop his Vedic reading for three nights. Nor should he at that time tell stories, not even during the night, nor should he glory in his knowledge.

19. ‘This (the Veda thus learnt and studied) is the name of that Great Being; and he who thus knows the name of that Great Being, he becomes Brahman, yea, he becomes Brahman.’


Footnotes

264:4 One of the sons of Harita, who was dark. Comm.

264:5 Brâhmana, in the sense of Upanishad, this secret doctrine or explanation. It forms an appendix, like the svishtakrit at the end of a sacrifice. ‘Iva,’ which the commentator explains as restrictive or useless, may mean, something like a Brâhmana.

265:1 The letters n and sh refer most likely to the rules of natva and shatva, i. e. the changing of n and s into n and sh.

265:2 If we know whenever n and s should be changed to n and sh in the Samhitâ.

265:3 The Kâvasheyas said that, after they had arrived at the highest knowledge of Brahman (through the various forms of meditation and worship that lead to it and that have been described in the Upanishad) no further meditation and no further sacrifice could be p. 266 required. Instead of the morning and evening stoma they offer breath in speech, whenever they speak, or speech in breath, when they are silent or asleep. When speech begins, breathing ceases; when breathing begins, speech ceases.

266:1 The strict prohibition uttered at the end of the third Âranyaka, not to divulge a knowledge of the Samhitâ-upanishad (Ait. Âr. III, 1-2), as here explained, is peculiar. It would have seemed self-evident that, like the rest of the sruti or sacred literature, the Âranyaka too, and every portion of it, could have been learnt from the mouth of a teacher only, and according to rule (niyamena), i. e. by a pupil performing all the duties of a student (brahmakârin 2a), so that no one except a regular pupil (antevâsin) could possibly gain access to it. Nor can there be any doubt that we ought to take the words asamvatsaravâsin and apravaktri as limitations, and to translate, ‘Let no one tell these Samhitâs to any pupil who has not at least been a year with his master, and who does not mean to become a teacher in turn.’

That this is the right view is confirmed by similar injunctions given at the end of the fifth Âranyaka. Here we have first some rules as to who is qualified to recite the Mahâvrata. No one is permitted to do so, who has not passed through the Dîkshâ, the initiation for the Agnishtoma. If the Mahâvrata is performed as a Sattra, the sacrificer is a Hotri priest, and he naturally has passed through that ceremony. But if the Mahâvrata is performed as an Ekâha or Ahîna ceremony, anybody might be the sacrificer, and therefore it was necessary to say that no one who is adîkshita, uninitiated, should recite it for another person; nor should he do so, p. 267 when the Mahâvrata is performed without (or with) an altar, or if it does not last one year. In saying, however, that one should not recite the Mahâvrata for another person, parents and teachers are not to be understood as included, because what is done for them, is done for ourselves.

After these restrictions as to the recitation of the Mahâvrata, follow other restrictions as to the teaching of it, and here we read, as at the end of the Upanishad:

4. ‘Let no one teach this day, the Mahâvrata, to one who is not a regular pupil (antevâsin), and has been so for one year, certainly not to one who has not been so for one year; nor to one who is not a brahmakârin and does not study the same Veda 1b, certainly not to one who does not study the same Veda; nor to one who does not come to him.

5. ‘Let the teaching not be more than saying it once or twice, twice only.

6. ‘One man should tell it to one man, so says Gâtukarnya.

7. ‘Not to a child, nor to a man in his third stage of life.

8. ‘The teacher and pupil should not stand, nor walk, nor lie down, nor sit on a couch; but they should both sit on the ground.

9. ‘The pupil should not lean backward while learning, nor lean forward. He should not be covered with too much clothing, nor assume the postures of a devotee, but without using any of the apparel of a devotee, simply elevate his knees. Nor should he learn, when he has eaten flesh, when he has seen blood, or a corpse, or when he has done an unlawful thing 2b; when he has anointed his eyes, oiled or rubbed his body, when he has been shaved or bathed, put colour on, or ornamented himself with flower-wreaths, when he has been writing or effacing his writing 3b.

10. ‘Nor should he finish the reading in one day, so says Gâtukarnya, while according to Gâlava, he should finish it in one day. Âgnivesyâyana holds that he should finish all before the Trikâsîtis 4b

266:4b See Ait. Âr. I, 4, 3, 1-4.

266:2a Âpastamba-sûtras, translated by Bühler, p. 18.

266:1b See Gautama-sûtras XIV, 21, and Bühler’s note.

266:2b Nâvratyam âkramya is explained by the commentator by ukkhishtâdyâkramana.

266:3b This, if rightly translated, would seem to be the earliest mention of actual writing in Sanskrit literature.

266:1c Âpastamba-sûtras, translated by Bühler, p. 92 (I, 2, 30, 4).

266:2c Âpastamba-sûtras, translated by Bühler, p. 33 (I, 3, 9, 2).

266:3c Âpastamba-sûtras, translated by Bühler, p. 44 (I, 3, 11, 31).

266:4c Âpastamba-sûtras, translated by Bühler, p. 33 (I, 3, 9, 1).

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