Hamro dharma

Upanishad, Brihadâranyaka

BRIHADÂRANYAKA-UPANISHAD.

FIRST ADHYÂYA 1.

FIRST BRÂHMANA.

1. Verily 2 the dawn is the head of the horse which is fit for sacrifice, the sun its eye, the wind its breath, the mouth the Vaisvânara 3 fire, the year the body of the sacrificial horse. Heaven is the back, the sky the belly, the earth the chest 4, the quarters the two sides, the intermediate quarters the ribs, the members the seasons, the joints the months and half-months, the feet days and nights, the bones the stars, the

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flesh the clouds. The half-digested food is the sand, the rivers the bowels 1, the liver and the lungs 2 the mountains, the hairs the herbs and trees. As the sun rises, it is the forepart, as it sets, the hindpart of the horse. When the horse shakes itself 3, then it lightens; when it kicks, it thunders; when it makes water, it rains; voice 4 is its voice.

2. Verily Day arose after the horse as the (golden) vessel 5, called Mahiman (greatness), which (at the sacrifice) is placed before the horse. Its place is in the Eastern sea. The Night arose after the horse as the (silver) vessel, called Mahiman, which (at the sacrifice) is placed behind the horse. Its place is in the Western sea. Verily, these two vessels (or greatnesses) arose to be on each side of the horse.

As a racer he carried the Devas, as a stallion the Gandharvas, as a runner the Asuras, as a horse men. The sea is its kin, the sea is its birthplace.


Footnotes

73:1 It is the third Adhyâya of the Âranyaka, but the first of the Upanishad.

73:2 This Brâhmana is found in the Mâdhyandina text of the Satapatha, ed. Weber, X, 6, 4. Its object is there explained by the commentary to be the meditative worship of Virâg, as represented metaphorically in the members of the horse. Sâyana dispenses with its explanation, because, as part of the Brihadâranyaka-upanishad, according to the Kânva-sâkhâ, it had been enlarged on by the Vârttikakâra and explained.

73:3 Agni or fire, as pervading everything, as universally present in nature.

73:4gasya is doubtful. The commentator suggests pâd-asya, the place of the feet, i.e. the hoof The Greek Pēgasos, or ἵπποι πηλοί, throws no light on the word. The meaning of hoof would hardly be appropriate here, and I prefer chest on account of uras in I, 2, 3. Deussen (Vedânta, p. 8) translates, die Erde seiner Füsse Schemel; but we want some part of the horse.

74:1 Guda, being in the plural, is explained by nâdî, channel, and sirâh; for we ought to read sirâ or hirâgrahane for sirâ, p. 22, l. 16.

74:2 Klomânah is explained as a plurale tantum (nityam bahuvakanam ekasmin), and being described as a lump below the heart, on the opposite side of the liver, it is supposed to be the lungs.

74:3 ‘When it yawns.’ Ânandagiri.

74:4 Voice is sometimes used as a personified power of thunder and other aerial sounds, and this is identified with the voice of the horse.

74:5 Two vessels, to hold the sacrificial libations, are placed at the Asvamedha before and behind the horse, the former made of gold, the latter made of silver. They are called Mahiman in the technical language of the ceremonial. The place in which these vessels are set, is called their yoni. Cf. Vâgas. Samhitâ XXIII, 2.

SECOND BRÂHMANA 6.

1. In the beginning there was nothing (to be perceived)

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here whatsoever. By Death indeed all this was concealed,–by hunger; for death is hunger. Death (the first being) thought, ‘Let me have a body.’ Then he moved about, worshipping. From him thus worshipping water was produced. And he said: ‘Verily, there appeared to me, while I worshipped (arkate), water (ka).’ This is why water is called ar-ka 1. Surely there is water (or pleasure) for him who thus knows the reason why water is called arka.

2. Verily water is arka. And what was there as the froth of the water, that was hardened, and became the earth. On that earth he (Death) rested, and from him, thus resting and heated, Agni (Virâg) proceeded, full of light.

3. That being divided itself threefold, Âditya (the sun) as the third, and Vâyu (the air) as the third 2. That spirit (prâna) 3 became threefold. The head was the Eastern quarter, and the arms this and that quarter

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[paragraph continues] (i. e. the N. E. and S. E., on the left and right sides). Then the tail was the Western quarter, and the two legs this and that quarter (i. e. the N. W. and S. W.) The sides were the Southern and Northern quarters, the back heaven, the belly the sky, the dust the earth. Thus he (Mrityu, as arka) stands firm in the water, and he who knows this stands firm wherever he goes.

4. He desired 1, ‘Let a second body be born of me,’ and he (Death or Hunger) embraced Speech in his mind. Then the seed became the year. Before that time there was no year. Speech 2 bore him so long as a year, and after that time sent him forth. Then when he was born, he (Death) opened his mouth, as if to swallow him. He cried Bhân! and that became speech 3.

5. He thought, ‘If I kill him, I shall have but little food.’ He therefore brought forth by that speech and by that body (the year) all whatsoever exists, the Rik, the Yagus, the Sâman, the metres, the sacrifices, men, and animals.

And whatever he (Death) brought forth, that he resolved to eat (ad). Verily because he eats everything, therefore is Aditi (Death) called Aditi. He who thus knows why Aditi is called Aditi, becomes an eater of everything, and everything becomes his food 4.

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6. He desired to sacrifice again with a greater sacrifice. He toiled and performed penance. And while he toiled and performed penance, glorious power 1 went out of him. Verily glorious power means the senses (prâna). Then when the senses had gone out, the body took to swelling (sva-yitum), and mind was in the body.

7. He desired that this body should be fit for sacrifice (medhya), and that he should be embodied by it. Then he became a horse (asva), because it swelled (asvat), and was fit for sacrifice (medhya); and this is why the horse-sacrifice is called Asva-medha.

Verily he who knows him thus, knows the Asvamedha. Then, letting the horse free, he thought 2, and at the end of a year he offered it up for himself, while he gave up the (other) animals to the deities. Therefore the sacrificers offered up the purified horse belonging to Pragâpati, (as dedicated) to all the deities.

Verily the shining sun is the Asvamedha-sacrifice, and his body is the year; Agni is the sacrificial fire (arka), and these worlds are his bodies. These two are the sacrificial fire and the Asvamedha-sacrifice, and they are again one deity, viz. Death. He (who knows this) overcomes another death, death does not reach him, death is his Self, he becomes one of those deities.

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THIRD BRÂHMANA 1.

1. There were two kinds of descendants of Pragâpati, the Devas and the Asuras 2. Now the Devas were indeed the younger, the Asuras the elder ones 3. The Devas, who were struggling in these worlds, said: ‘Well, let us overcome the Asuras at the sacrifices (the Gyotishtoma) by means of the udgîtha.’

2. They said to speech (Vâk): ‘Do thou sing out for us (the udgîtha).’ ‘Yes,’ said speech, and sang (the udgîtha). Whatever delight there is in speech, that she obtained for the Devas by singing (the three pavamânas); but that she pronounced well (in the other nine pavamânas), that was for herself. The Asuras knew: ‘Verily, through this singer they will overcome us.’ They therefore rushed at the singer and pierced her with evil. That evil which consists in saying what is bad, that is that evil.

3. Then they (the Devas) said to breath (scent): ‘Do thou sing out for us.’ ‘Yes,’ said breath, and sang. Whatever delight there is in breath (smell), that he obtained for the Devas by singing; but that he smelled well, that was for himself. The Asuras knew: ‘Verily, through this singer they will overcome us.’ They therefore rushed at the singer, and

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pierced him with evil. That evil which consists in smelling what is bad, that is that evil.

4. Then they said to the eye: ‘Do thou sing out for us.’ ‘Yes,’ said the eye, and sang. Whatever delight there is in the eye, that he obtained for the Devas by singing; but that he saw well, that was for himself The Asuras knew: ‘Verily, through this singer they will overcome us.’ They therefore rushed at the singer, and pierced him with evil. That evil which consists in seeing what is bad, that is that evil.

5. Then they said to the ear: ‘Do thou sing out for us.’ ‘Yes,’ said the ear, and sang. Whatever delight there is in the ear, that he obtained for the Devas by singing; but that he heard well, that was for himself. The Asuras knew: ‘Verily, through this singer they will overcome us.’ They therefore rushed at the singer, and pierced him with evil. That evil which consists in hearing what is bad, that is that evil.

6. Then they said to the mind: ‘Do thou sing out for us.’ ‘Yes,’ said the mind, and sang. Whatever delight there is in the mind, that he obtained for the Devas by singing; but that he thought well, that was for himself. The Asuras knew: ‘Verily, through this singer they will overcome us.’ They therefore rushed at the singer, and pierced him with evil. That evil which consists in thinking what is bad, that is that evil.

Thus they overwhelmed these deities with evils, thus they pierced them with evil.

7. Then they said to the breath in the mouth 1: ‘Do thou sing for us.’ ‘Yes,’ said the breath, and sang. The Asuras knew: ‘Verily, through this singer

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they will overcome us.’ They therefore rushed at him and pierced him with evil. Now as a ball of earth will be scattered when hitting a stone, thus they perished, scattered in all directions. Hence the Devas rose, the Asuras fell. He who knows this, rises by his self, and the enemy who hates him falls.

8. Then they (the Devas) said: ‘Where was he then who thus stuck to us 1?’ It was (the breath) within the mouth (âsye ‘ntar 2), and therefore called Ayâsya; he was the sap (rasa) of the limbs (anga), and therefore called Ângirasa.

9. That deity was called Dûr, because Death was far (dûran) from it. From him who knows this, Death is far off.

10. That deity, after having taken away the evil of those deities, viz. death, sent it to where the end of the quarters of the earth is. There he deposited their sins. Therefore let no one go to a man, let no one go to the end (of the quarters of the earth 3), that he may not meet there with evil, with death.

11. That deity, after having taken away the evil of those deities, viz. death, carried them beyond death.

12. He carried speech across first. When speech had become freed from death, it became (what it had been before) Agni (fire). That Agni, after having stepped beyond death, shines.

13. Then he carried breath (scent) across. When breath had become freed from death, it became

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[paragraph continues] Vâyu (air). That Vâyu, after having stepped beyond death, blows.

14. Then he carried the eye across. When the eye had become freed from death, it became Âditya (the sun). That Âditya, after having stepped beyond death, burns.

15. Then he carried the ear across. When the ear had become freed from death, it became the quarters (space). These are our quarters (space), which have stepped beyond death.

16. Then he carried the mind across. When the mind had become freed from death, it became the moon (Kandramas). That moon, after having stepped beyond death, shines. Thus does that deity carry him, who knows this, across death.

17. Then breath (vital), by singing, obtained for himself eatable food. For whatever food is eaten, is eaten by breath alone, and in it breath rests 1.

The Devas said: ‘Verily, thus far, whatever food there is, thou hast by singing acquired it for thyself. Now therefore give us a share in that food.’ He said: ‘You there, enter into me.’ They said Yes, and entered all into him. Therefore whatever food is eaten by breath, by it the other senses are satisfied.

18. If a man knows this, then his own relations come to him in the same manner; he becomes their supporter, their chief leader, their strong ruler 2. And if ever anyone tries to oppose 3 one who is possessed of such knowledge among his own relatives, then he

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will not be able to support his own belongings. But he who follows the man who is possessed of such knowledge, and who with his permission wishes to support those whom he has to support, he indeed will be able to support his own belongings.

19. He was called Ayâsya Ângirasa, for he is the sap (rasa) of the limbs (anga). Verily, breath is the sap of the limbs. Yes, breath is the sap of the limbs. Therefore from whatever limb breath goes away, that limb withers, for breath verily is the sap of the limbs.

20. He (breath) is also Brihaspati, for speech is Brihatî (Rig-veda), and he is her lord; therefore he is Brihaspati.

2 1. He (breath) is also Brahmanaspati, for speech is Brahman (Yagur-veda), and he is her lord; therefore he is Brahmanaspati.

He (breath) is also Sâman (the Udgîtha), for speech is Sâman (Sama-veda), and that is both speech (sâ) and breath (ama) 1. This is why Sâman is called Sâman.

22. Or because he is equal (sama) to a grub, equal to a gnat, equal to an elephant, equal to these three worlds, nay, equal to this universe, therefore he is Sâman. He who thus knows this Sâman, obtains union and oneness with Sâman.

23. He (breath) is Udgîtha 2. Breath verily is Ut, for by breath this universe is upheld (uttabdha); and speech is Gîthâ, song. And because he is ut and gîthâ, therefore he (breath) is Udgîtha.

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24. And thus Brahmadatta Kaikitâneya (the grandson of Kikitâna), while taking Soma (râgan), said: ‘May this Soma strike my head off, if Ayâsya Ângirasa sang another Udgîtha than this. He sang it indeed as speech and breath.’

25. He who knows what is the property of this Sâman, obtains property. Now verily its property is tone only. Therefore let a priest, who is going to perform the sacrificial work of a Sama-singer, desire that his voice may have a good tone, and let him perform the sacrifice with a voice that is in good tone. Therefore people (who want a priest) for a sacrifice, look out for one who possesses a good voice, as for one who possesses property. He who thus knows what is the property of that Sâman, obtains property.

26. He who knows what is the gold of that Sâman, obtains gold. Now verily its gold. is tone only. He who thus knows what is the gold of that Sâman, obtains gold.

27. He who knows what is the support of that Sâman, he is supported. Now verily its support is speech only. For, as supported in speech, that breath is sung as that Sâman. Some say the support is in food.

Next follows the Abhyâroha 1 (the ascension) of the Pavamâna verses. Verily the Prastotri begins to sing the Sâman, and when he begins, then let him (the sacrificer) recite these (three Yagus-verses):

‘Lead me from the unreal to the real! Lead me

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from darkness to light! Lead me from death to immortality!’

Now when he says, ‘Lead me from the unreal to the real,’ the unreal is verily death, the real immortality. He therefore says, ‘Lead me from death to immortality, make me immortal.’

When he says, ‘Lead me from darkness to light,’ darkness is verily death, light immortality. He therefore says, ‘Lead me from death to immortality, make me immortal.’

When he says, ‘Lead me from death to immortality,’ there is nothing there, as it were, hidden (obscure, requiring explanation) 1.

28. Next come the other Stotras with which the priest may obtain food for himself by singing them. Therefore let the sacrificer, while these Stotras are being sung, ask for a boon, whatever desire he may desire. An Udgâtri priest who knows this obtains by his singing whatever desire he may desire either for himself or for the sacrificer. This (knowledge) indeed is called the conqueror of the worlds. He who thus knows this Sâman 2, for him there is no fear of his not being admitted to the worlds 3.


Footnotes

74:6 Called the Agni-brâhmana, and intended to teach the origin of p. 75 Agni, the fire, which is here used for the Horse-sacrifice. It is found in the Satapatha-brâhmana, Mâdhyandina-sâkhâ X, 6, 5, and there explained as a description of Hiranyagarbha.

75:1 We ought to read arkasyârkatvam, as in Poley’s edition, or ark-kasyârkkatvam, to make the etymology still clearer. The commentator takes arka in the sense of fire, more especially the sacrificial fire employed at the Horse-sacrifice. It may be so, but the more natural interpretation seems to me to take arka here as water, from which indirectly fire is produced. From water springs the earth; on that earth he (Mrityu or Pragâpati) rested, and from him, while resting there, fire (Virâg) was produced. That fire assumed three forms, fire, sun, and air, and in that threefold form it is called prâna, spirit.

75:2 As Agni, Vâyu, and Âditya.

75:3 Here Agni (Virâg) is taken as representing the fire of the altar at the Horse-sacrifice, which is called Arka. The object of the whole Brâhmana was to show the origin and true character of that fire (arka).

76:1 He is the same as what was before called mrityu, death, who, after becoming self-conscious, produced water, earth, fire, &c. He now wishes for a second body, which is the year, or the annual sacrifice, the year being dependent on the sun (Âditya).

76:2 The commentator understands the father, instead of Speech, the mother.

76:3 The interjectional theory.

76:4 All these are merely fanciful etymologies of asvamedha and arka.

77:1 Or glory (senses) and power. Comm.

77:2 He considered himself as the horse. Roer.

78:1 Called the Udgîtha-brâhmana. In the Mâdhyandina-sâkhâ, the Upanishad, which consists of six adhyâyas, begins with this Brâhmana (cf. Weber’s edition, p. 104 7; Commentary, p. 1109).

78:2 The Devas and Asuras are explained by the commentator as the senses, inclining either to sacred or to worldly objects, to good or evil.

78:3 According to the commentator, the Devas were the less numerous and less strong, the Asuras the more numerous and more powerful.

79:1 This is the chief or vital breath, sometimes called mukhya.

80:1 Asakta from sañg, to embrace; cf. Rig-veda I, 33, 3. Here it corresponds to the German anhänglich.

80:2 See Deussen, Vedanta, p. 359.

80:3 To distant people.

81:1 This is done by the last nine Pavamânas, while the first three were used for obtaining the reward common to all the prânas.

81:2 Here annâda is well explained by anâmayâvin, and vyâdhirahita, free from sickness, strong.

81:3 Read pratipratih; see Poley, and Weber, p. 1180.

82:1 Cf. Khând. Up. V, 2, 6.

82:2 Not used here in the sense of song or hymn, but as an act of worship connected with the Sâman. Comm.

83:1 The ascension is a ceremony by which the performer reaches the gods, or becomes a god. It consists in the recitation of three Yagus, and is here enjoined to take place when the Prastotri priest begins to sing his hymn.

84:1 See Deussen, Vedânta, p. 86.

84:2 He knows that he is the Prâna, which Prâna is the Sâman. That Prâna cannot be defeated by the Asuras, i.e. by the senses which are addicted to evil; it is pure, and the five senses finding refuge in him, recover there their original nature, fire, &c. The Prâna is the Self of all things, also of speech (Rig-yaguh-sâmodgîtha), and of the Sâman that has to be sung and well sung. The Prâna pervades all creatures, and he who identifies himself with that Prâna, obtains the rewards mentioned in the Brâhmana. Comm.

84:3 In connection with lokagit, lokyatâ is here explained, and may probably have been intended, as worthiness to be admitted to the highest world. Originally lokyatâ and alokyatâ meant right and wrong. See also I, 5, 17.

FOURTH BRÂHMANA 1.

1. In the beginning this was Self alone, in the shape of a person (purusha). He looking round saw nothing but his Self. He first said, ‘This is I;’ therefore he became I by name. Therefore even now, if a man is asked, he first says, ‘This is I,’ and then pronounces the other name which he may have. And because before (pûrva) all this, he (the Self) burnt down (ush) all evils, therefore he was a person (pur-usha). Verily he who knows this, burns down every one who tries to be before him.

2. He feared, and therefore any one who is lonely fears. He thought, ‘As there is nothing but myself, why should I fear?’ Thence his fear passed away. For what should he have feared? Verily fear arises from a second only.

3. But he felt no delight. Therefore a man who is lonely feels no delight. He wished for a second. He was so large as man and wife together. He then made this his Self to fall in two (pat), and thence arose husband (pati) and wife (patnî). Therefore Yâavalkya said: ‘We two 2 are thus (each of us) like half a shell 3.’ Therefore the void which was

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there, is filled by the wife. He embraced her, and men were born.

4. She thought, ‘How can he embrace me, after having produced me from himself? I shall hide myself.’

She then became a cow, the other became a bull and embraced her, and hence cows were born. The one became a mare, the other a stallion; the one a male ass, the other a female ass. He embraced her, and hence one-hoofed animals were born. The one became a she-goat, the other a he-goat; the one became a ewe 1, the other a ram. He embraced her, and hence goats and sheep were born. And thus he created everything that exists in pairs, down to the ants.

5. He knew, ‘I indeed am this creation, for I created all this.’ Hence he became the creation, and he who knows this lives in this his creation.

6. Next he thus produced fire by rubbing. From the mouth, as from the fire-hole, and from the hands he created fire 2. Therefore both the mouth and the hands are inside without hair, for the fire-hole is inside without hair.

And when they say, ‘Sacrifice to this or sacrifice to that god,’ each god is but his manifestation, for he is all gods.

Now, whatever there is moist, that he created from seed; this is Soma. So far verily is this universe either food or eater. Soma indeed is food, Agni eater. This is the highest creation of Brahman,

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when he created the gods from his better part 1, and when he, who was (then) mortal 2, created the immortals. Therefore it was the highest creation. And he who knows this, lives in this his highest creation.

7. Now all this was then undeveloped. It became developed by form and name, so that one could say, ‘He, called so and so, is such a one 3.’ Therefore at present also all this is developed by name and form, so that one can say, ‘He, called so and so, is such a one.’

He (Brahman or the Self) entered thither, to the very tips of the finger-nails, as a razor might be fitted in a razor-case, or as fire in a fire-place 4.

He cannot be seen, for, in part only, when breathing, he is breath by name; when speaking, speech by name; when seeing, eye by name; when hearing, ear by name; when thinking, mind by name. All these are but the names of his acts. And he who worships (regards) him as the one or the other, does not know him, for he is apart from this (when qualified) by the one or the other (predicate). Let men worship him as Self, for in the Self all these are one. This Self is the footstep of everything, for through it one knows everything 5. And as one can find again by footsteps what was lost, thus he who knows this finds glory and praise.

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8. This, which is nearer to us than anything, this Self, is dearer than a son, dearer than wealth, dearer than all else.

And if one were to say to one who declares another than the Self dear, that he will lose what is dear to him, very likely it would be so. Let him worship the Self alone as dear. He who worships the Self alone as dear, the object of his love will never perish 1.

9. Here they say: ‘If men think that by knowledge of Brahman they will become everything, what then did that Brahman know, from whence all this sprang?’

10. Verily in the beginning this was Brahman, that Brahman knew (its) Self only, saying, ‘I am Brahman.’ From it all this sprang. Thus, whatever Deva was awakened (so as to know Brahman), he indeed became that (Brahman); and the same with Rishis and men. The Rishi Vâmadeva saw and understood it, singing, ‘I was Manu (moon), I was the sun.’ Therefore now also he who thus knows that he is Brahman, becomes all this, and even the Devas cannot prevent it, for he himself is their Self.

Now if a man worships another deity, thinking the deity is one and he another, he does not know. He is like a beast for the Devas. For verily, as many beasts nourish a man, thus does every man nourish the Devas. If only one beast is taken away, it is not pleasant; how much more when many are taken! Therefore it is not pleasant to the Devas that men should know this.

11. Verily in the beginning this was Brahman, one

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only. That being one, was not strong enough. It created still further the most excellent Kshatra (power), viz. those Kshatras (powers) among the Devas,–Indra, Varuna, Soma, Rudra, Parganya, Yama, Mrityu, Îsâna. Therefore there is nothing beyond the Kshatra, and therefore at the Râgasûya sacrifice the Brâhmana sits down below the Kshatriya. He confers that glory on the Kshatra alone. But Brahman is (nevertheless) the birth-place of the Kshatra. Therefore though a king is exalted, he sits down at the end (of the sacrifice) below the Brahman, as his birth-place. He who injures him, injures his own birth-place. He becomes worse, because he has injured one better than himself.

12. He 1 was not strong enough. He created the Vis (people), the classes of Devas which in their different orders are called Vasus, Rudras, Âdityas, Visve Devas, Maruts.

13. He was not strong enough. He created the Sûdra colour (caste), as Pûshan (as nourisher). This earth verily is Pûshan (the nourisher); for the earth nourishes all this whatsoever.

14. He was not strong enough. He created still further the most excellent Law (dharma). Law is the Kshatra (power) of the Kshatra 2, therefore there is nothing higher than the Law. Thenceforth even a weak man rules a stronger with the help of the Law, as with the help of a king. Thus the Law is what is called the true. And if a man declares what is true, they say he declares the Law; and if he declares the Law, they say he declares what is true. Thus both are the same.

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15. There are then this Brahman, Kshatra, Vis, and Sûdra. Among the Devas that Brahman existed as Agni (fire) only, among men as Brâhmana, as Kshatriya through the (divine) Kshatriya, as Vaisya through the (divine) Vaisya, as Sûdra through the (divine) Sûdra. Therefore people wish for their future state among the Devas through Agni (the sacrificial fire) only; and among men through the Brâhmana, for in these two forms did Brahman exist.

Now if a man departs this life without having seen his true future life (in the Self), then that Self, not being known, does not receive and bless him, as if the Veda had not been read, or as if a good work had not been done. Nay, even if one who does not know that (Self), should perform here on earth some great holy work, it will Perish for him in the end. Let a man worship the Self only as his true state. If a man worships the Self only as his true state, his work does not Perish, for whatever he desires that he gets from that Self.

16. Now verily this Self (of the ignorant man) is the world 1 of all creatures. In so far as man sacrifices and pours out libations, he is the world of the Devas; in so far as he repeats the hymns, &c., he is the world of the Rishis; in so far as he offers cakes to the Fathers and tries to obtain offspring, he is the world of the Fathers; in so far as he gives shelter and food to men, he is the world of men; in so far as he finds fodder and water for the animals, he is the world of the animals; in so far as quadrupeds, birds, and even ants live in his houses, he is their world. And as every one wishes his own world not to be injured,

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thus all beings wish that he who knows this should not be injured. Verily this is known and has been well reasoned.

17. In the beginning this was Self alone, one only. He desired, ‘Let there be a wife for me that I may have offspring, and let there be wealth for me that I may offer sacrifices.’ Verily this is the whole desire, and, even if wishing for more, he would not find it. Therefore now also a lonely person desires, ‘Let there be a wife for me that I may have offspring, and let there be wealth for me that I may offer sacrifices.’ And so long as he does not obtain either of these things, he thinks he is incomplete. Now his completeness (is made up as follows): mind is his self (husband); speech the wife; breath the child; the eye all worldly wealth, for he finds it with the eye; the ear his divine wealth, for he hears it with the ear. The body (âtman) is his work, for with the body he works. This is the fivefold 1 sacrifice, for fivefold is the animal, fivefold man, fivefold all this whatsoever. He who knows this, obtains all this.


Footnotes

85:1 Called Purushavidhabrâhmana (Mâdhyandina-sâkhâ, p. 1050). See Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, vol. i, p. 24.

85:2 The Comm. explains svah by âtmanah, of himself. But see Boehtlingk, Sanskrit Chrestomathie, p. 357.

85:3 Roer translates: ‘Therefore was this only one half of himself, as a split pea is of a whole.’ Brigala is a half of anything. Muir (Orig. Sansk. Texts, vol. i, p. 25) translates: ‘Yâavalkya has said that this one’s self is like the half of a split pea.’ I have translated the sentence according to Professor Boehtlingk’s conjecture (Chrestomathie, 2nd ed. p. 357), though the singular after the dual (svah) is irregular.

86:1 The reading avir itaro, i.e. itarâ u, is not found in the Kânva text. See Boehtlingk, Chrestomathie, p. 357.

86:2 He blew with the mouth while he rubbed with the hands.

87:1 Or, when he created the best gods.

87:2 As man and sacrificer. Comm.

87:3 The Comm. takes asau-nâmâ as a compound, instead of idam-nâmâ. I read asau nâma, he is this by name, viz. Devadatta, &c. Dr. Boehtlingk, who in his Chrestomathie (2nd ed. p. 31) had accepted the views of the Commentator, informs me that he has changed his view, and thinks that we should read asaú nâ’ma.

87:4 Cf. Kaush. Br. Up. VI, 19.

87:5 As one finds lost cattle again by following their footsteps, thus one finds everything, if one has found out the Self.’ Comm.

88:1 On rudh, to lose, see Taitt. Samh. II, 6, 8, 5, pp. 765, 771, as pointed out by Dr. Boehtlingk. On îsvaro (yat) tathaiva syât, see Boehtlingk, s. v.

89:1 Observe the change from tad, it, to sa, he.

89:2 More powerful than the Kshatra or warrior caste. Comm.

90:1 Is enjoyed by them all. Comm.

91:1 Fivefold, as consisting of mind, speech, breath, eye, and ear. See Taitt. Up. I, 7, 1.

FIFTH BRÂHMANA 2.

1. ‘When the father (of creation) had produced by knowledge and penance (work) the seven kinds of food, one of his (foods) was common to all beings, two he assigned to the Devas, (1)

‘Three he made for himself, one he gave to the animals. In it all rests, whatsoever breathes and breathes not. (2)

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‘Why then do these not perish, though they are always eaten? He who knows this imperishable one, he eats food with his face. (3)

‘He goes even to the Devas, he lives on strength.’ (4)

2. When it is said, that ‘the father produced by knowledge and penance the seven kinds of food,’ it is clear that (it was he who) did so. When it is said, that ‘one of his (foods) was common,’ then that is that common food of his which is eaten. He who worships (eats) that (common food), is not removed from evil, for verily that food is mixed (property) 1. When it is said, that ‘two he assigned to the Devas,’ that is the huta, which is sacrificed in fire, and the prahuta, which is given away at a sacrifice. But they also say, the new-moon and full-moon sacrifices are here intended, and therefore one should not offer them as an ishti or with a wish.

When it is said, that ‘one he gave to animals,’ that is milk. For in the beginning (in their infancy) both men and animals live on milk. And therefore they either make a new-born child lick ghrita (butter), or they make it take the breast. And they call a new-born creature ‘atrinâda,’ i.e. not eating herbs. When it is said, that ‘in it all rests, whatsoever breathes and breathes not,’ we see that all this, whatsoever breathes and breathes not, rests and depends on milk.

And when it is said (in another Brâhmana), that a man who sacrifices with milk a whole year 2, overcomes death again, let him not think so. No, on

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the very day on which he sacrifices, on that day he overcomes death again; for he who knows this, offers to the gods the entire food (viz. milk).

When it is said, ‘Why do these not perish, though they are always eaten,’ we answer, Verily, the Person is the imperishable, and he produces that food again and again 1.

When it is said, ‘He who knows this imperishable one, I then, verily, the Person is the imperishable one, for he produces this food by repeated thought, and whatever he does not work by his works, that perishes.

When it is said, that ‘he eats food with his face,’ then face means the mouth, he eats it with his mouth.

When it is said, that ‘he goes even to the Devas, he lives on strength,’ that is meant as praise.

3. When it is said, that ‘he made three for himself,’ that means that he made mind, speech, and breath for himself. As people say, ‘My mind was elsewhere, I did not see; my mind was elsewhere, I did not hear,’ it is clear that a man sees with his mind and hears with his mind 2. Desire, representation, doubt, faith, want of faith, memory 3, forgetfulness, shame, reflexion, fear, all this is mind. Therefore even if a man is touched on the back, he knows it through the mind.

Whatever sound there is, that is speech. Speech indeed is intended for an end or object, it is nothing by itself.

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The up-breathing, the down-breathing, the back-breathing, the out-breathing, the on-breathing, all that is breathing is breath (prâna) only. Verily that Self consists of it; that Self consists of speech, mind, and breath.

4. These are the three worlds: earth is speech, sky mind, heaven breath.

5. These are the three Vedas: the Rig-veda is speech, the Yagur-veda mind, the Sâma-veda breath.

6. These are the Devas, Fathers, and men: the Devas are speech, the Fathers mind, men breath.

7. These are father, mother, and child: the father is mind, the mother speech, the child breath.

8. These are what is known, what is to be known, and what is unknown.

What is known, has the form of speech, for speech is known. Speech, having become this, protects man 1.

9. What is to be known, has the form of mind, for mind is what is to be known. Mind, having become this, protects man.

10. What is unknown, has the form of breath, for breath is unknown. Breath, having become this, protects man 2.

11. Of that speech (which is the food of Pragâpati) earth is the body, light the form, viz. this fire. And so far as speech extends, so far extends the earth, so far extends fire.

12. Next, of this mind heaven is the body, light the form, viz. this sun. And so far as this mind

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extends, so far extends heaven, so far extends the sun. If they (fire and sun) embrace each other, then wind is born, and that is Indra, and he is without a, rival. Verily a second is a rival, and he who knows this, has no rival.

13. Next, of this breath water is the body, light the form, viz. this moon. And so far as this breath extends, so far extends water, so far extends the moon.

These are all alike, all endless. And he who worships them as finite, obtains a finite world, but he who worships them as infinite, obtains an infinite world.

14. That Pragâpati is the year, and he consists of sixteen digits. The nights 1 indeed are his fifteen digits, the fixed point 2 his sixteenth digit. He is increased and decreased by the nights. Having on the new-moon night entered with the sixteenth part into everything that has life, he is thence born again in the morning. Therefore let no one cut off the life of any living thing on that night, not even of a lizard, in honour (pûgârtham) of that deity.

15. Now verily that Pragâpati, consisting of sixteen digits, who is the year, is the same as a man who knows this. His wealth constitutes the fifteen digits, his Self the sixteenth digit. He is increased and decreased by that wealth. His Self is the nave, his wealth the felly. Therefore even if he loses everything, if he lives but with his Self, people say, he lost the felly (which can be restored again).

16. Next there are verily three worlds, the world of men, the world of the Fathers, the world of the Devas. The world of men can be gained by a son

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only, not by any other work. By sacrifice the world of the Fathers, by knowledge the world of the Devas is gained. The world of the Devas is the best of worlds, therefore they praise knowledge.

17. Next follows the handing over. When a man thinks he is going to depart, he says to his son: ‘Thou art Brahman (the Veda, so far as acquired by the father); thou art the sacrifice (so far as performed by the father); thou art the world.’ The son answers: ‘I am Brahman, I am the sacrifice, I am the world.’ Whatever has been learnt (by the father) that, taken as one, is Brahman. Whatever sacrifices there are, they, taken as one, are the sacrifice. Whatever worlds there are, they, taken as one, are the world. Verily here ends this (what has to be done by a father, viz. study, sacrifice, &c.) ‘He (the son), being all this, preserved me from this world 1,’ thus he thinks. Therefore they call a son who is instructed (to do all this), a world-son (lokya), and therefore they instruct him.

When a father who knows this, departs this world, then he enters into his son together with his own spirits (with speech, mind, and breath). If there is anything done amiss by the father, of all that the son delivers him, and therefore he is called Putra, son 2. By help of his son the father stands firm in this world 3. Then these divine immortal spirits (speech, mind, and breath) enter into him.

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18. From the earth and from fire, divine speech enters into him. And verily that is divine speech whereby, whatever he says, comes to be.

19. From heaven and the sun, divine mind enters into him. And verily that is divine mind whereby he becomes joyful, and grieves no more.

20. From water and the moon, divine breath (spirit) enters into him. And verily that is divine breath which, whether moving or not moving, does not tire, and therefore does not perish. He who knows this, becomes the Self of all beings. As that deity (Hiranyagarbha) is, so does he become. And as all beings honour that deity (with sacrifice, &c.), so do all beings honour him who knows this.

Whatever grief these creatures suffer, that is all one 1 (and therefore disappears). Only what is good approaches him; verily, evil does not approach the Devas.

21. Next follows the consideration of the observances 2 (acts). Pragâpati created the actions (active senses). When they had been created, they strove among themselves. Voice held, I shall speak; the eye held, I shall see; the ear held, I shall hear; and thus the other actions too, each according to its own act. Death, having become weariness, took them and seized them. Having seized them, death held them back (from their work). Therefore speech grows weary, the eye grows weary, the ear grows weary. But death did not seize the central breath. Then the others tried to know him, and

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said: ‘Verily, he is the best of us, he who, whether moving or not, does not tire and does not perish. Well, let all of us assume his form.’ Thereupon they all assumed his form, and therefore they are called after him ‘breaths’ (spirits).

In whatever family there is a man who knows this, they call that family after his name. And he who strives with one who knows this, withers away and finally dies. So far with regard to the body.

22. Now with regard to the deities.

Agni (fire) held, I shall burn; Âditya (the sun) held, I shall warm; Kandramas (the moon) held, I shall shine; and thus also the other deities, each according to the deity. And as it was with the central breath among the breaths, so it was with Vâyu, the wind among those deities. The other deities fade, not Vâyu. Vâyu is the deity that never sets.

23. And here there is this Sloka:

‘He from whom the sun rises, and into whom it sets’ (he verily rises from the breath, and sets in the breath)

‘Him the Devas made the law, he only is to-day, and he to-morrow also’ (whatever these Devas determined then, that they perform to-day also 1).

Therefore let a man perform one observance only, let him breathe up and let him breathe down, that the evil death may not reach him. And when he performs it, let him try to finish it. Then he obtains through it union and oneness with that deity (with prâna).


Footnotes

91:2 Mâdhyandina text, p. 1054.

92:1 It belongs to all beings.

92:2 This would imply 360 sacrificial days, each with two oblations, i.e. 720 oblations.

93:1 Those who enjoy the food, become themselves creators. Comm.

93:2 See Deussen, Vedânta, p. 358.

93:3 Firmness, strength. Comm.

94:1 ‘The food (speech), having become known, can be consumed.’ Comm.

94:2 This was adhibhautika, with reference to bhûtas, beings. Next follows the adhidaivika, with reference to the devas, gods. Comm.

95:1 Meant for nychthemera.

95:2 When he is just invisible at the new moon.

96:1 Roer seems to have read samnaya, ‘all this multitude.’ I read, etan mi sarvam sann ayam ito ‘bhunagad iti.

96:2 The Comm. derives putra from pu (pûr), to fill, and tra (trâ), to deliver, a deliverer who fills the holes left by the father, a stopgap. Others derive it from put, a hell, and tri, to protect; cf. Manu IX, 138.

96:3 ‘The manushya-loka, not the pitri-loka and deva-loka.’ Comm.

97:1 ‘Individuals suffer, because one causes grief to another. But in the universal soul, where all individuals are one, their sufferings are neutralised.’ Comm.

97:2 The upâsana or meditative worship.

98:1 The prâna-vrata and vâyu-vrata. Comm.

SIXTH BRÂHMANA 1.

1. Verily this is a triad, name, form, and work. Of these names, that which is called Speech is the Uktha (hymn, supposed to mean also origin), for from it all names arise. It is their Sâman (song, supposed to mean also sameness), for it is the same as all names. It is their Brahman (prayer, supposed to mean also support), for it supports all names.

2. Next, of the forms, that which is called Eye is the Uktha (hymn), for from it all forms arise. It is their Sâman (song), for it is the same as all forms. It is their Brahman (prayer), for it supports all forms.

3. Next, of the works, that which is called Body is the Uktha (hymn), for from it all works arise. It is their Sâman (song), for it is the same as all works. It is their Brahman (prayer), for it supports all works.

That being a triad is one, viz. this Self; and the Self, being one, is that triad. This is the immortal, covered by the true. Verily breath is the immortal, name and form are the true, and by them the immortal is covered.

SECOND ADHYÂYA 1.

FIRST BRÂHMANA 2.

1. There 3 was formerly the proud Gârgya Bâlâki 4, a man of great reading. He said to Agâtasatru of Kâsi, ‘Shall I tell you Brahman?’ Agâtasatru said: ‘We give a thousand (cows) for that speech (of yours), for verily all people run away, saying, Ganaka (the king of Mithilâ) is our father (patron) 5.’

2. Gârgya said: ‘The person that is in the sun 6, that I adore as Brahman.’ Agâtasatru said to him: ‘No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him

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verily as the supreme, the head of all beings, the king. Whoso adores him thus, becomes Supreme, the head of all beings, a king.’

3. Gârgya said: ‘The person that is in the moon (and in the mind), that I adore as Brahman.’ Agâtasatru said to him: ‘No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him verily as the great, clad in white raiment, as Soma, the king.’ Whoso adores him thus, Soma is poured out and poured forth for him day by day, and his food does not fail 1.

4. Gârgya said: ‘The person that is in the lightning (and in the heart), that I adore as Brahman.’ Agâtasatru said to him: ‘No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him verily as the luminous.’ Whoso adores him thus, becomes luminous, and his offspring becomes luminous.

5. Gârgya said: ‘The person that is in the ether (and in the ether of the heart), that I adore as Brahman.’ Agâtasatru said to him: ‘No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him as what is full, and quiescent.’ Whoso adores him thus, becomes filled with offspring and cattle, and his offspring does not cease from this world.

6. Gârgya said: ‘The person that is in the wind (and in the breath), that I adore as Brahman.’ Agâtasatru said to him: ‘No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him as Indra Vaikuntha, as the unconquerable army (of the Maruts).’ Whoso adores him thus, becomes victorious, unconquerable, conquering his enemies.

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7. Gârgya said: ‘The person that is in the fire (and in the heart), that I adore as Brahman.’ Agâtasatru said to him: ‘No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him as powerful.’ Whoso adores him thus, becomes powerful, and his offspring becomes powerful.

8. Gârgya said: ‘The person that is in the water (in seed, and in the heart), that I adore as Brahman.’ Agâtasatru said to him: ‘No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him as likeness.’ Whoso adores him thus, to him comes what is likely (or proper), not what is improper; what is born from him, is like unto him 1.

9. Gârgya said: ‘The person that is in the mirror, that I adore as Brahman.’ Agâtasatru said to him: ‘No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him verily as the brilliant.’ Whoso adores him thus, he becomes brilliant, his offspring becomes brilliant, and with whomsoever he comes together, he outshines them.

10. Gârgya said: ‘The sound that follows a man while he moves, that I adore as Brahman.’ Agâtasatru said to him: ‘No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him verily as life.’ Whoso adores him thus, he reaches his full age in this world, breath does not leave him before the time.

11. Gârgya said: ‘The person that is in space, that I adore as Brahman.’ Agâtasatru said to him: ‘No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him verily as the second who never leaves us.’

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Whoso adores him thus, becomes possessed of a second, his party is not cut off from him,

12. Gârgya said: ‘The person that consists of the shadow, that I adore as Brahman.’ Agâtasatru said to him: ‘No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him verily as death.’ Whoso adores him thus, he reaches his whole age in this world, death does not approach him before the time.

13. Gârgya said: ‘The person that is in the body 1, that I adore as Brahman.’ Agâtasatru said to him: ‘No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him verily as embodied.’ Whoso adores him thus, becomes embodied, and his offspring becomes embodied 2.

Then Gârgya became silent.

14. Agâtasatru said: ‘Thus far only?’ ‘Thus far only,’ he replied. Agâtasatru said: ‘This does not suffice to know it (the true Brahman).’ Gârgya replied: ‘Then let me come to you, as a pupil.’

15. Agâtasatru said: ‘Verily, it is unnatural that a Brâhmana should come to a Kshatriya, hoping that he should tell him the Brahman. However, I shall make you know him clearly,’ thus saying he took him by the hand and rose.

And the two together came to a person who was asleep. He called him by these names, ‘Thou, great one, clad in white raiment, Soma, King 3.’ He

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did not rise. Then rubbing him with his hand, he woke him, and he arose.

16. Agâtasatru said: ‘When this man was thus asleep, where was then the person (purusha), the intelligent? and from whence did he thus come back?’ Gârgya did not know this?

17. Agâtasatru said: ‘When this man was thus asleep, then the intelligent person (purusha), having through the intelligence of the senses (prânas) absorbed within himself all intelligence, lies in the ether, which is in the heart 1. When he takes in these different kinds of intelligence, then it is said that the man sleeps (svapiti) 2. Then the breath is kept in, speech is kept in, the ear is kept in, the eye is kept in, the mind is kept in.

18. But when he moves about in sleep (and dream), then these are his worlds. He is, as it were, a great king; he is, as it were, a great Brâhmana; he rises, as it were, and he falls. And as a great king might keep in his own subjects, and move about, according to his pleasure, within his own domain, thus does that person (who is endowed with intelligence) keep in the various senses (prânas) and move about, according to his pleasure, within his own body (while dreaming).

19. Next, when he is in profound sleep, and knows

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nothing, there are the seventy-two thousand arteries called Hita, which from the heart spread through the body 1. Through them he moves forth and rests in the surrounding body. And as a young man, or a great king, or a great Brâhmana, having reached the summit of happiness, might rest, so does he then rest.

20. As the spider comes out with its thread, or as small sparks come forth from fire, thus do all senses, all worlds, all Devas, all beings come forth from that Self The Upanishad (the true name and doctrine) of that Self is ‘the True of the True.’ Verily the senses are the true, and he is the true of the true.


Footnotes

100:1 Mâdhyandina text, p. 1058.

100:2 Whatever has been taught to the end of the third (according to the counting of the Upanishad, the first) Adhyâya, refers to avidyâ, ignorance. Now, however, vidyâ, the highest knowledge, is to be taught, and this is done, first of all, by a dialogue between Gârgya Driptabâlâki and king Agâtasatru, the former, though a Brâhmana, representing the imperfect, the latter, though a Kshatriya, the perfect knowledge of Brahman. While Gârgya worships the Brahman as the sun, the moon, &c., as limited, as active and passive, Agâtasatru knows the Brahman as the Self.

100:3 Compare with this the fourth Adhyâya of the Kaushîtaki-upanishad, Sacred Books of the East, vol. i, p. 300; Gough, Philosophy of the Upanishads, p. 144.

100:4 Son of Balâkâ, of the race of the Gârgyas.

100:5 Ganaka, known as a wise and liberal king. There is a play on his name, which means father, and is understood in the sense of patron, or of teacher of wisdom. The meaning is obscure; and in the Kaush. Up. IV. i, the construction is still more difficult. What is intended seems to be that Agâtasatru is willing to offer any reward to a really wise man, because all the wise men are running after Ganaka and settling at his court.

100:6 The commentator expatiates on all these answers and brings them more into harmony with Vedanta doctrines. Thus he adds that the person in the sun is at the same time the person in the eye, who is both active and passive in the heart, &c.

101:1 We miss the annasyâtmâ, the Self of food, mentioned in the Kaush. Up., and evidently referred to in the last sentence of our paragraph. Suta and prasuta, poured out and poured forth, are explained as referring to the principal and the secondary sacrifices.

102:1 Here the Kaush. Up. has the Self of the name, instead of pratirûpa, likeness. The commentator thinks that they both mean the same thing, because a name is the likeness of a thing. Another text of the Kaush. Up. gives here the Self of light. Pratirûpa in the sense of likeness comes in later in the Kaush. Up., § 11.

103:1 ‘In the Âtman, in Pragâpati, in the Buddhi, and in the heart.’ Comm.

103:2 It is difficult to know what is meant here by âtman and âtmanvin. In the Kaush. Up. Agâtasatru refers to Pragâpati, and the commentator here does the same, adding, however, buddhi and hrid. Gough translates âtmanvin by ‘having peace of mind.’ Deussen, p. 195, passes it over.

103:3 These names are given here as they occur in the Kaushîtaki-upanishad, not as in the Brihadâranyaka-upanishad, where the p. 104 first name was atishthâh sarveshâm bhûtânâm mûrdhâ râgâ. This throws an important light on the composition of the Upanishads.

104:1 The ether in the heart is meant for the real Self. He has come to himself, to his Self, i.e. to the true Brahman.

104:2 Svapiti, he sleeps, is explained as sva, his own Self, and apiti for apyeti, he goes towards, so that ‘he sleeps’ must be interpreted as meaning ‘he comes to his Self.’ In another passage it is explained by svam apîto bhavati. See Sankara’s Commentary on the Brih. Âr. Up. vol. i, p. 372.

105:1 ‘Not the pericardium only, but the whole body.’ Comm.

SECOND BRÂHMANA 2.

1. Verily he who knows the babe 3 with his place 4, his chamber 5, his post 6, and his rope 7, he keeps off the seven relatives 8 who hate him. Verily by the young is meant the inner life, by his place this (body) 9, by his chamber this (head), by his post the vital breath, by his rope the food.

2. Then the seven imperishable ones 10 approach him. There are the red lines in the eye, and by them Rudra clings to him. There is the water

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in the eye, and by it Parganya clings to him. There is the pupil, and by it Âditya (sun) clings to him, There is the dark iris, and by it Agni clings to him. There is the white eye-ball, and by it Indra, clings to him. With the lower eye-lash the earth, with the upper eye-lash the heaven clings to him. He who knows this, his food does never perish.

3. On this there is this Sloka:

‘There 1 is a cup having its mouth below and its bottom above. Manifold glory has been placed into it. On its lip sit the seven Rishis, the tongue as the eighth communicates with Brahman.’ What is called the cup having its mouth below and its bottom above is this head, for its mouth (the mouth) is below, its bottom (the skull) is above. When it is said that manifold glory has been placed into it, the senses verily are manifold glory, and he therefore means the senses. When he says that the seven Rishis sit on its lip, the Rishis are verily the (active) senses, and he means the senses. And when he says that the tongue as the eighth communicates with Brahman, it is because the tongue, as the eighth, does communicate with Brahman.

4. These two (the two ears) are the Rishis Gautama and Bharadvâga; the right Gautama, the left Bharadvâga. These two (the eyes) are the Rishis Visvâmitra and Gamadagni; the right Visvâmitra, the left Gamadagni. These two (the nostrils) are the Rishis Vasishtha and Kasyapa; the right Vasishtha, the left Kasyapa. The tongue is Atri, for with the tongue food is eaten, and Atri is meant for Atti, eating. He who knows this, becomes an eater of everything, and everything becomes his food.


Footnotes

105:2 Mâdhyandina text, p. 1061.

105:3 The lingâtman, or subtle body which has entered this body in five ways. Comm.

105:4 The body.

105:5 The head.

105:6 The vital breath.

105:7 Food, which binds the subtle to the coarse body.

105:8 The seven organs of the head through which man perceives and becomes attached to the world.

105:9 The commentator remarks that while saying this, the body and the head are pointed out by touching them with the hand (pânipeshapratibodhanena).

105:10 See before, I, 5, 1, 2. They are called imperishable, because they produce imperishableness by supplying food for the prâna, here called the babe.

106:1 Cf. Atharva-veda-samh. X, 8, 9.

THIRD BRÂHMANA 1.

1. There are two forms of Brahman, the material and the immaterial, the mortal and the immortal, the solid and the fluid, sat (being) and tya (that), (i.e. sat-tya, true) 2.

2. Everything except air and sky is material, is mortal, is solid, is definite. The essence of that which is material, which is mortal, which is solid, which is definite is the sun that shines, for he is the essence of sat (the definite).

3. But air and sky are immaterial, are immortal, are fluid, are indefinite. The essence of that which is immaterial, which is immortal, which is fluid, which is indefinite is the person in the disk of the sun, for he is the essence of tyad (the indefinite). So far with regard to the Devas.

4. Now with regard to the body. Everything except the breath and the ether within the body is material, is mortal, is solid, is definite. The essence of that which is material, which is mortal, which is solid, which is definite is the Eye, for it is the essence of sat (the definite).

5. But breath and the ether within the body are immaterial, are immortal, are fluid, are indefinite. The essence of that which is immaterial, which is immortal, which is fluid, which is indefinite is the person in the right eye, for he is the essence of tyad (the indefinite).

6. And what is the appearance of that person? Like a saffron-coloured raiment, like white wool,

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like cochineal, like the flame of fire, like the white lotus, like sudden lightning. He who knows this, his glory is like unto sudden lightning.

Next follows the teaching (of Brahman) by No, no 1! for there is nothing else higher than this (if one says): ‘It is not so.’ Then comes the name ‘the True of the True,’ the senses being the True, and he (the Brahman) the True of them.


Footnotes

107:1 Mâdhyandina text, p. 1062.

107:2 Sat is explained by definite, tya or tyad by indefinite.

108:1 See III, 9, 26; IV, 2,4; IV, 4, 22; IV, 5, I5.

FOURTH BRÂHMANA 2.

1. Now when Yâavalkya was going to enter upon another state, he said: ‘Maitreyî 3, verily I am going away from this my house (into the forest 4). Forsooth, let me make a settlement between thee and that Kâtyâyanî (my other wife).’

2. Maitreyî said: ‘My Lord, if this whole earth, full of wealth, belonged to me, tell me, should I be immortal by it 5?’

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‘No,’ replied Yâavalkya; ‘like the life of rich people will be thy life. But there is no hope of immortality by wealth.’

3. And Maitreyî said: ‘What should I do with that by which I do not become immortal? What my Lord knoweth (of immortality), tell that to me 1.’

4. Yâavalkya replied: ‘Thou who art truly dear to me, thou speakest dear words 2. Come, sit down, I will explain it to thee, and mark well what I say.’

5. And he said: ‘Verily, a husband is not dear, that you may love the husband; but that you may love the Self, therefore a husband is dear.

‘Verily, a wife is not dear, that you may love the wife; but that you may love the Self, therefore a wife is dear.

‘Verily, sons are not dear, that you may love the sons; but that you may love the Self, therefore sons are dear.

‘Verily, wealth is not dear, that you may love wealth; but that you may love the Self, therefore wealth is dear 3.

‘Verily, the Brahman-class is not dear, that you may love the Brahman-class; but that you may love the Self, therefore the Brahman-class is dear.

‘Verily, the Kshatra-class is not dear, that you may love the Kshatra-class; but that you may love the Self, therefore the Kshatra-class is dear.

‘Verily, the worlds are not dear, that you may love the worlds; but that you may love the Self, therefore the worlds are dear.

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‘Verily, the Devas are not dear, that you may love the Devas; but that you may love the Self, therefore the Devas are dear 1.

‘Verily, creatures are not dear, that you may love the creatures; but that you may love the Self, therefore are creatures dear.

‘Verily, everything is not dear that you may love everything; but that you may love the Self, therefore everything is dear.

‘Verily, the Self is to be seen, to be heard, to be perceived, to be marked, O Maitreyî! When we see, hear, perceive, and know the Self 2, then all this is known.

6. ‘Whosoever looks for the Brahman-class elsewhere than in the Self, was 3 abandoned by the Brahman-class. Whosoever looks for the Kshatra-class elsewhere than in the Self, was abandoned by the Kshatra-class. Whosoever looks for the worlds elsewhere than in the Self, was abandoned by the worlds. Whosoever looks for the Devas elsewhere than in the Self, was abandoned by the Devas 4. Whosoever looks for creatures elsewhere than in the Self, was abandoned by the creatures. Whosoever looks for anything elsewhere than in the Self, was abandoned by everything. This Brahman-class, this Kshatra-class, these worlds, these Devas 5, these 6 creatures, this everything, all is that Self.

7. ‘Now as 7 the sounds of a drum, when beaten,

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cannot be seized externally (by themselves), but the sound is seized, when the drum is seized or the beater of the drum;

8., And as the sounds of a conch-shell, when blown, cannot be seized externally (by themselves), but the sound is seized, when the shell is seized or the blower of the shell;

9. ‘And as the sounds of a lute, when played, cannot be seized externally (by themselves), but the sound is seized, when the lute is seized or the player of the lute;

10. ‘As clouds of smoke proceed by themselves out of a lighted fire kindled with damp fuel, thus, verily, O Maitreyî, has been breathed forth from this great Being what we have as Rig-veda, Yagur-veda, Sama-veda, Atharvângirasas, Itihâsa (legends), Purâna (cosmogonies), Vidyâ (knowledge), the Upanishads, Slokas (verses), Sûtras (prose rules), Anuvyâkhyânas (glosses), Vyâkhyânas (commentaries) 1. From him alone all these were breathed forth.

11. ‘As all waters find their centre in the sea, all touches in the skin, all tastes in the tongue, all smells in the nose, all colours in the eye, all sounds in the ear, all percepts in the mind, all knowledge in the heart, all actions in the hands, all movements in the feet, and all the Vedas in speech,–

12. ‘As a lump of salt 2, when thrown into water, becomes dissolved into water, and could not be taken

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out again, but wherever we taste (the water) it is salt,–thus verily, O Maitreyî, does this great Being, endless, unlimited, consisting of nothing but knowledge 1, rise from out these elements, and vanish again in them. When he has departed, there is no more knowledge (name), I say, O Maitreyî.’ Thus spoke Yâavalkya.

13. Then Maitreyî said: ‘Here thou hast bewildered me, Sir, when thou sayest that having departed, there is no more knowledge 2.’

But Yâavalkya replied: ‘O Maitreyî, I say nothing that is bewildering. This is enough, O beloved, for wisdom 3.

‘For when there is as it were duality, then one sees the other, one smells the other, one hears the other 4, one salutes the other 5, one perceives the other 6, one knows the other; but when the Self only is all this, how should he smell another 7, how should he see 8 another 9, how should he hear 10 another, how should he salute 11 another, how should he perceive another 12, how should he know another? How should he know Him by whom he knows all this?

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[paragraph continues] How, O beloved, should he know (himself), the Knower 1?’


Footnotes

108:2 Mâdhyandina text, p. 1062. To the end of the third Brâhmana of the second Adhyâya, all that has been taught does not yet impart the highest knowledge, the identity of the personal and the true Self, the Brahman. In the fourth Brâhmana, in which the knowledge of the true Brahman is to be set forth, the Samnyâsa, the retiring from the world, is enjoined, when all desires cease, and no duties are to be performed (Samnyâsa, pârivâgya). The story is told again with slight variations in the Brihadâranyaka-upanishad IV, 5. The more important variations, occurring in IV, 5, are added here, marked with B. There are besides the various readings of the Mâdhyandinasâkhâ of the Satapatha-brâhmana. See also Deussen, Vedânta, p. 185.

108:3 In Brih. Up. IV, 5, the story begins: Yâavalkya had two wives, Maitreyî and Kâtyâyanî. Of these Maitreyî was conversant with Brahman, but Kâtyâyanî possessed such knowledge only as women possess.

108:4 Instead of udyâsyan, B. gives pravragishyan, the more technical term.

108:5 Should I be immortal by it, or no? B.

109:1 Tell that clearly to me. B.

109:2 Thou who art dear to me, thou hast increased what is dear (to me in this). B.

109:3 B. adds, Verily, cattle are not dear, &c.

110:1 B. inserts, Verily, the Vedas are not dear, &c.

110:2 When the Self has been seen, heard, perceived, and known. B.

110:3 The commentator translates, ‘should be abandoned.’

110:4 B. inserts, Whosoever looks for the Vedas, &c.

110:5 B. adds, these Vedas.

110:6 B. has, all these creatures.

110:7 I construe sa yathâ with evam vai in § 12, looking upon p. 111 § 11 as probably a later insertion. The sa is not the pronoun, but a particle, as in sa yadi, sa ket, &c.

111:1 B. adds, what is sacrificed, what is poured out, food, drink, this world and the other world, and all creatures.

111:2 See Khând. Up. VI, 13.

112:1 As a mass of salt has neither inside nor outside, but is altogether a mass of taste, thus indeed has that Self neither inside nor outside, but is altogether a mass of knowledge. B.

112:2 ‘Here, Sir, thou hast landed me in utter bewilderment. Indeed, I do not understand him.’ B.

112:3 Verily, beloved, that Self is imperishable, and of an indestructible nature. B.

112:4 B. inserts, one tastes the other.

112:5 B. inserts, one hears the other.

112:6 B. inserts, one touches the other.

112:7 See, B.

112:8 Smell, B.

112:9 B. inserts taste.

112:10 Salute, B.

112:11 Hear, B.

112:12 B. inserts, how should he touch another?

FIFTH BRÂHMANA 2.

1. This earth is the honey 3 (madhu, the effect) of all beings, and all beings are the honey (madhu, the effect) of this earth. Likewise this bright, immortal person in this earth, and that bright immortal person incorporated in the body (both are madhu). He indeed is the same as that Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All.

2. This water is the honey of all beings, and all beings are the honey of this water. Likewise this bright, immortal person in this water, and that bright, immortal person, existing as seed in the body (both are madhu). He indeed is the same as that Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All.

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3. This fire is the honey of all beings, and all beings are the honey of this fire. Likewise this bright, immortal person in this fire, and that bright, immortal person, existing as speech in the body (both are madhu). He indeed is the same as that Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All.

4. This air is the honey of all beings, and all beings are the honey of this air. Likewise this bright, immortal person in this air, and that bright, immortal person existing as breath in the body (both are madhu). He indeed is the same as that Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All.

5. This sun is the honey of all beings, and all beings are the honey of this sun. Likewise this bright, immortal person in this sun, and that bright, immortal person existing as the eye in the body (both are madhu). He indeed is the same as that Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All.

6. This space (disah, the quarters) is the honey of all beings, and all beings are the honey of this space. Likewise this bright, immortal person in this space, and that bright, immortal person existing as the ear in the body (both are madhu). He indeed is the same as that Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All.

7. This moon is the honey of all beings, and all beings are the honey of this moon. Likewise this bright, immortal person in this moon, and that bright, immortal person existing as mind in the body (both are madhu). He indeed is the same as that Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All.

8. This lightning is the honey of all beings, and all beings are the honey of this lightning. Likewise this bright, immortal person in this lightning, and

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that bright, immortal person existing as light in the body (both are madhu). He indeed is the same as that Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All.

9. This thunder 1 is the honey of all beings, and all beings are the honey of this thunder. Likewise this bright, immortal person in this thunder, and that bright, immortal person existing as sound and voice in the body (both are madhu). He indeed is the same as that Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All.

10. This ether is the honey of all beings, and all beings are the honey of this ether. Likewise this bright, immortal person in this ether, and that bright, immortal person existing as heart-ether in the body (both are madhu). He indeed is the same as that Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All.

11. This law (dharmah) is the honey of all beings, and all beings are the honey of this law. Likewise this bright, immortal person in this law, and that bright, immortal person existing as law in the body (both are madhu). He indeed is the same as that Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All.

12. This true 2 (satyam) is the honey of all beings, and all beings are the honey of this true. Likewise this bright, immortal person in what is true, and that bright, immortal person existing as the true in the body (both are madhu). He indeed is the same as that Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All.

13. This mankind is the honey of all beings, and all beings are the honey of this mankind. Likewise

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this bright, immortal person in mankind, and that bright, immortal person existing as man in the body (both are madhu). He indeed is the same as that Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All.

14. This Self is the honey of all beings, and all beings are the honey of this Self Likewise this bright, immortal person in this Self, and that bright, immortal person, the Self (both are madhu). He indeed is the same as that Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All.

15. And verily this Self is the lord of all beings, the king of all beings. And as all spokes are contained in the axle and in the felly of a wheel, all beings, and all those selfs (of the earth, water, &c.) are contained in that Self.

16. Verily Dadhyak Âtharvana proclaimed this honey (the madhu-vidyâ) to the two Asvins, and a Rishi, seeing this, said (Rv. I, 116, 12):

‘O ye two heroes (Asvins), I make manifest that fearful deed of yours (which you performed) for the sake of gain 1, like as thunder 2 makes manifest the rain. The honey (madhu-vidyâ) which Dadhyak Âtharvana proclaimed to you through the head of a horse,’ . . .

17. Verily Dadhyak Âtharvana 3 proclaimed this honey to the two Asvins, and a Rishi, seeing this, said (Rv. I, 117, 22):

‘O Asvins, you fixed a horse’s head on Âtharvana Dadhyak, and he, wishing to be true (to his promise),

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proclaimed to you the honey, both that of Tvashtri 1 and that which is to be your secret, O ye strong ones.

18. Verily Dadhyak Âtharvana proclaimed this honey to the two Asvins, and a Rishi, seeing this, said:

‘He (the Lord) made bodies with two feet, he made bodies with four feet. Having first become a bird, he entered the bodies as purusha (as the person).’ This very purusha is in all bodies the purisaya, i.e. he who lies in the body (and is therefore called purusha). There is nothing that is not covered by him, nothing that is not filled by him.

19. Verily Dadhyak Âtharvana proclaimed this honey to the two Asvins, and a Rishi, seeing this, said (Rv. VI, 47, 18):

‘He (the Lord) became like unto every form 2, and this is meant to reveal the (true) form of him (the Âtman). Indra (the Lord) appears multiform through the Mâyâs (appearances), for his horses (senses) are yoked, hundreds and ten.’

This (Âtman) is the horses, this (Âtman) is the ten, and the thousands, many and endless. This is the Brahman, without cause and without effect, without anything inside or outside; this Self is Brahman, omnipresent and omniscient. This is the teaching (of the Upanishads).


Footnotes

113:1 Instead of the last line, B. adds (IV, 5, 15): That Self is to be described by No, no! He is incomprehensible, for be cannot be comprehended; he is imperishable, for he cannot perish; he is unattached, for he does not attach himself; unfettered, he does not suffer, he does not fail. How, O beloved, should he know the Knower? Thus, O Maitreyî, thou hast been instructed. Thus far goes immortality.’ Having said so, Yâavalkya went away (into the forest). 15. See also Khând. Up. VII, 24, 1.

113:2 Mâdhyandina text, p. 1064.

113:3 Madhu, honey, seems to be taken here as an instance of something which is both cause and effect, or rather of things which are mutually dependent on each other, or cannot exist without one other. As the bees make the honey, and the honey makes or supports the bees, bees and honey are both cause and effect, or at all events are mutually dependent on one other. In the same way the earth and all living beings are looked upon as mutually dependent, living beings presupposing the earth, and the earth presupposing living beings. This at all events seems to be the general idea of what is called the Madhuvidyâ, the science of honey, which Dadhyak communicated to the Asvins.

115:1 Stanayitnu, thunder, is explained by the commentator as Parganya.

115:2 Satyam, the true, the real, not, as it is generally translated, the truth.

116:1 The translation here follows the commentary.

116:2 Tanyatu, here explained as Parganya.

116:3 Sankara distinguishes here between Atharvana and Âtharvana, if the text is correct.

117:1 Sankara explains Tvashtri as the sun, and the sun as the head of the sacrifice which, having been cut off, was to be replaced by the pravargya rite. The knowledge of this rite forms the honey of Tvashtri. The other honey which is to be kept secret is the knowledge of the Self, as taught before in the Madhu-brâhmana.

117:2 He assumed all forms, and such forms, as two-footed or four-footed animals, remained permanent. Comm.

SIXTH BRÂHMANA.

1. Now follows the stem 1:

1 . Pautimâshya from Gaupavana,
2. Gaupavana from Pautimâshya,
3. Pautimâshya from Gaupavana,
4. Gaupavana from Kausika,
5. Kausika from Kaundinya,
6. Kaundinya from Sândilya,
7. Sândilya from Kausika and Gautama,
8. Gautama

2. from Âgnivesya,

9. Âgnivesya from Sândilya and Ânabhimlâta,
10. Sândilya and Ânabhimlâta from Ânabhimlâta,
11. Ânabhimlâta from Ânabhimlâta,
12. Ânabhimlâta from Gautama,
13. Gautama from Saitava and Prâkînayogya,
14. Saitava and Prâkînayogya from Pârasarya,
15. Pârasarya from Bhâradvâga,
16. Bhâradvâga from Bhâradvâga and Gautama,
17. Gautama from Bharadvâga,

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18. Bharadvâga from Pârâsarya,
19. Pârâsarya from Vaigavâpâyana,
20. Vaigavâpâyana from Kausikâyani,
21 1. Kausikâyani

3. from Ghritakausika,

22. Ghritakausika from Pârâsaryâyana,
23. Pârâsaryâyana from Pârâsarya,
24. Pârâsarya from Gâtûkarnya 2,
25. Gâtûkarnya from Âsurâyana and Yâska 3,
26. Âsurâyana and Yâska from Traivani,
27. Traivani from Aupagandhani,
28. Aupagandhani from Âsuri,
29. Âsuri from Bhâradvâga,
30. Bhâradvâga from Âtreya,
31. Âtreya from Mânti,
32. Mânti from Gautama,
33, Gautama from Gautama,
34. Gautama from Vâtsya,
35. Vâtsya from Sândilya,
36. Sândilya from Kaisorya Kâpya,
37. Kaisorya Kâpya from Kumârahârita,
38. Kumârahârita from Gâlava,
39. Gâlava from Vidarbhî-kaundinya,
40. Vidarbhî-kaundinya from Vatsanapât Bâbhrava,
41. Vatsanapât Bâbhrava from Pathi Saubhara,
42. Pathi Saubhara from Ayâsya Ângirasa,
43. Ayâsya Ângirasa from Âbhûti Tvâshtra,
44. Âbhûti Tvâshtra from Visvarûpa Tvâshtra,
45. Visvarûpa Tvâshtra from Asvinau,

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46. Asvinau from Dadhyak Âtharvana,
47. Dadhyak Âtharvana from Atharvan Daiva,
48. Atharvan Daiva from Mrityu Prâdhvamsana,
49. Mrityu Prâdhvamsana from Prâdhvamsana,
50. Prâdhvamsana from Ekarshi,
51. Ekarshi from Viprakitti 1,
52. Viprakitti from Vyashti,
53. Vyashti from Sanâru,
54. Sanâru from Sanâtana,
55. Sanâtana from Sanaga,
56. Sanaga from Parameshthin,
57. Parameshthin from Brahman,
58. Brahman is Svayambhu, self-existent.
Adoration to Brahman 2.


Footnotes

118:1 The line of teachers and pupils by whom the Madhukânda (the fourth Brâhmana) was handed down. The Mâdhyandina-sâkhâ begins with ourselves, then 1. Saurpanâyya, 2. Gautama, 3. Vâtsya, 4. Vâtsya and Pârâsarya, 5. Sânkritya and Bhâradvâga, 6. Audavâhi and Sândilya, 7. Vaigavâpa and Gautama, 8. Vaigavâpâyana and Vaishtapureya, 9. Sândilya and Rauhinâyana, 10. Saunaka Âtreya, and Raibhya, 11. Pautimâshyâyana and Kaundinyâyana: 12. Kaundinya, 13. Kaundinya, 14. Kaundinya and Âgnivesya, 15. Saitava, 16. Pârâsarya, 17. Gâtukarnya, 18. Bhâradvâga, 19. Bhâradvâga, Âsurâyana, and Gautama, 20. Bhâradvâga, 21. Vaigavâpâyana. Then the same as the Kânvas to Gâtukarnya, who learns from Bhâradvâga, who learns from Bhâradvâga, Âsurâyana, and Yâska. Then Traivani &c. as in the Kânva-vamsa.

119:1 From here the Vamsa agrees with the Vamsa at the end of IV, 6.

119:2 Bhâradvâga, in Mâdhyandina text.

119:3 Bhâradvâga, Âsurâyana, and Yâska, in Mâdhyandina text.

120:1 Vipragitti, in Mâdhyandina text.

120:2 Similar genealogies are found Brih. Âr. Up. IV, 6, and VI, 5.

THIRD ADHYÂYA.

FIRST BRÂHMANA 1.

Adoration to the Highest Self (Paramâtman)!

1. Ganaka Vaideha (the king of the Videhas) sacrificed with a sacrifice at which many presents were offered to the priests of (the Asvamedha). Brâhmanas of the Kurus and the Pâñkâlas had come thither, and Ganaka Vaideha wished to know, which of those Brâhmanas was the best read. So he enclosed a thousand cows, and ten pâdas (of gold) 2 were fastened to each pair of horns.

2. And Ganaka spoke to them: ‘Ye venerable Brâhmanas, he who among you is the wisest, let him drive away these cows.’

Then those Brâhmanas durst not, but Yâavalkya said to his pupil: ‘Drive them away, my dear.’

He replied: ‘O glory of the Sâman 3‘ and drove them away.

The Brâhmanas became angry and said: ‘How could he call himself the wisest among us?’

Now there was Asvala, the Hotri priest of Ganaka Vaideha. He asked him: ‘Are you indeed the

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wisest among us, O Yâavalkya?’ He replied: ‘I bow before the wisest (the best knower of Brahman), but I wish indeed to have these cows.’

Then Asvala, the Hotri priest, undertook to question him.

1. ‘Yâavalkya, he said, ‘everything here (connected with the sacrifice) is reached by death, everything is overcome by death. By what means then is the sacrificer freed beyond the reach of death?’

avalkya said: ‘By the Hotri priest, who is Agni (fire), who is speech. For speech is the Hotri of the sacrifice (or the sacrificer), and speech is Agni, and he is the Hotri. This constitutes freedom, and perfect freedom (from death).’

4. ‘Yâavalkya,’ he said, ‘everything here is reached by day and night, everything is overcome by day and night. By what means then is the sacrificer freed beyond the reach of day and night?’

avalkya said: ‘By the Adhvaryu priest, who is the eye, who is Âditya (the sun) 1. For the eye is the Adhvaryu of the sacrifice, and the eye is the sun, and he is the Adhvaryu. This constitutes freedom, and perfect freedom.’

5. ‘Yâavalkya,’ he said, ‘everything here is reached by the waxing and waning of the moon, everything is overcome by the waxing and waning of the moon. By what means then is the sacrificer freed beyond the reach of the waxing and waning of the moon?’

avalkya said: ‘By the Udgâtri priest, who is Vâyu (the wind), who is the breath. For the

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breath is the Udgâtri of the sacrifice, and the breath is the wind, and he is the Udgâtri. This constitutes freedom, and perfect freedom.’

6. ‘Yâavalkya,’ he said, ‘this sky is, as it were, without an ascent (staircase.) By what approach does the sacrificer approach the Svarga world?’

avalkya said: ‘By the Brahman priest, who is the mind (manas), who is the moon. For the mind is the Brahman of the sacrifice, and the mind is the moon, and he is the Brahman. This constitutes freedom, and perfect freedom. These are the complete deliverances (from death).’

Next follow the achievements.

7. ‘Yâavalkya,’ he said, ‘how many Rik verses will the Hotri priest employ to-day at this sacrifice?’

‘Three,’ replied Yâavalkya.

‘And what are these three?’

‘Those which are called Puronuvâkyâ, Yâgyâ, and, thirdly, Sasyâ 1.’

‘What does he gain by them?’

‘All whatsoever has breath.’

8. ‘Yâavalkya,’ he said, ‘how many oblations (âhuti) will the Adhvaryu priest employ to-day at this sacrifice?’

‘Three,’ replied Yâavalkya.

‘And what are these three?’

‘Those which, when offered, flame up; those which, when offered, make an excessive noise; and those which, when offered, sink down 2.’

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‘What does he gain by them?’

‘By those which, when offered, flame up, he gains the Deva (god) world, for the Deva world flames up, as it were. By those which, when offered, make an excessive noise, he gains the Pitri (father) world, for the Pitri world is excessively (noisy) 1. By those which, when offered, sink down, he gains the Manushya (man) world, for the Manushya world is, as it were, down below.’

9. ‘Yâavalkya,’ he said, ‘with how many deities does the Brahman priest on the right protect to-day this sacrifice?’

‘By one,’ replied Yâavalkya.

‘And which is it?’

‘The mind alone; for the mind is endless, and the Visvedevas are endless, and he thereby gains the endless world.’

10. ‘Yâavalkya,’ he said, ‘how many Stotriyâ hymns will the Udgâtri priest employ to-day at this sacrifice?’

‘Three,’ replied Yâavalkya.

‘And what are these three?’

‘Those which are called Puronuvâkyâ, Yâgyâ, and, thirdly, Sasyâ.’

‘And what are these with regard to the body (adhyâtmam)?’

‘The Puronuvâkyâ is Prâna (up-breathing), the Yâgyâ the Apâna (down-breathing), the Sasyâ the Vyâna (back-breathing).’

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‘What does he gain by them?’

‘He gains the earth by the Puronuvâkyâ, the sky by the Yâgyâ, heaven by the Sasyâ.’

After that Asvala held his peace.


Footnotes

121:1 Mâdhyandina text, p. 1067.

121:2 Palakaturbhâgah pâdah suvarnasya. Comm.

121:3 One expects iti after udaga, but Sâmasravas is applied to Yâavalkya, and not to the pupil. Yâavalkya, as the commentator observes, was properly a teacher of the Yagur-veda, but as the pupil calls him Sâmasravas, he shows that Yâavalkya knew all the four Vedas, because the Sâmans are taken from the Rig-veda, and the Atharva-veda is contained in the other three Vedas. Regnaud, however, refers it to the pupil, and translates, ‘Ô toi qui apprends le Sâma-veda.’

122:1 One expects âdityena kakshushâ, instead of kakshushâdityena, but see § 6.

123:1 The Puronuvâkyâs are hymns employed before the actual sacrifice, the Yâgyâs accompany the sacrifice, the Sasyâs are used for the Sastra. All three are called Stotriyâs.

123:2 These oblations are explained as consisting of wood and oil, of flesh, and of milk and Soma. The first, when thrown on the p. 124 fire, flame up. The second, when thrown on the fire, make a loud hissing noise. The third, consisting of milk, Soma, &c., sink down into the earth.

124:1 On account of the cries of those who wish to be delivered out of it. Comm.

SECOND BRÂHMANA 1.

1. Then Gâratkârava Ârtabhâga 2 asked. ‘Yâavalkya,’ he said, ‘how many Grahas are there, and how many Atigrahas 3?’

‘Eight Grahas,’ he replied,’ and eight Atigrahas.’

‘And what are these eight Grahas and eight Atigrahas?’

2. ‘Prâna (breath) is one Graha, and that is seized by Apâna (down-breathing) as the Atigrâha 4, for one smells with the Apâna.’

3. ‘Speech (vâk) is one Graha, and that is seized by name (nâman) as the Atigrâha, for with speech one pronounces names.

4. ‘The tongue is one Graha, and that is seized by taste as the Atigrâha, for with the tongue one perceives tastes.’

5. ‘The eye is one Graha, and that is seized by form as the Atigrâha, for with the eye one sees forms.’

6. ‘The ear is one Graha, and that is seized by sound as the Atigrâha, for with the ear one hears sounds.’

7. ‘The mind is one Graha, and that is seized by

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desire as the Atigrâha, for with the mind one desires desires.’

8. ‘The arms are one Graha, and these are seized by work as the Atigrâha, for with the arms one works work.’

9. ‘The skin is one Graha, and that is seized by touch as the Atigrâha, for with the skin one perceives touch. These are the eight Grahas and the eight Atigrahas.’

10. ‘Yâavalkya,’ he said, ‘everything is the food of death. What then is the deity to whom death is food?’

‘Fire (agni) is death, and that is the food of water. Death is conquered again.’

11. ‘Yâavalkya,’ he said, ‘when such a person (a sage) dies, do the vital breaths (prânas) move out of him or no?’

‘No,’ replied Yâavalkya; ‘they are gathered up in him, he swells, he is inflated, and thus inflated the dead lies at rest.’

12. ‘Yâavalkya,’ he said, ‘when such a man dies, what does not leave him?’

‘The name,’ he replied; ‘for the name is endless, the Visvedevas are endless, and by it he gains the endless world.’

13. ‘Yâavalkya,’ he said,’ when the speech of this dead person enters into the fire 1, breath into the air, the eye into the sun, the mind into the moon, the hearing into space, into the earth the body, into the ether the self, into the shrubs the hairs of the body, into the trees the hairs of the head, when the

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blood and the seed are deposited in the water, where is then that person?’

avalkya said: ‘Take my hand, my friend. We two alone shall know of this; let this question of ours not be (discussed) in public.’ Then these two went out and argued, and what they said was karman (work), what they praised was karman 1, viz. that a man becomes good by good work, and bad by bad work. After that Gâratkârava Ârtabhâga held his peace.


Footnotes

125:1 Mâdhyandina text, p. 1069.

125:2 A descendant of Ritabhâga of the family of Garatkâru.

125:3 Graha is probably meant originally in its usual sacrificial sense, as a vessel for offering oblations. But its secondary meaning, in which it is here taken, is a taker, a grasper, i.e. an organ of sense, while atigraha is intended for that which is grasped, i.e. an object of sense.

125:4 Here the â is long, khândasatvât.

126:1 The commentator explains purusha here by asamyagdarsin, one who does not know the whole truth. See also Deussen, Vedânta, p. 405, and p. 399, note.

127:1 What is intended is that the samsâra continues by means of karman, while karman by itself never leads to moksha.

THIRD BRÂHMANA 2.

1. Then Bhugyu Lâhyâyani asked. ‘Yâavalkya,’ he said, ‘we wandered about as students 3, and came to the house of Patañkala Kâpya. He had a daughter who was possessed by a Gandharva. We asked him, ‘Who art thou?’ and he (the Gandharva) replied: ‘I am Sudhanvan, the Ângirasa.’ And when we asked him about the ends of the world, we said to him, ‘Where were the Pârikshitas 4? Where then were the Pârikshitas, I ask thee, Yâavalkya, where were the Pârikshitas?’

2. Yâavalkya said: ‘He said to thee, I suppose, that they went where those go who have performed a horse-sacrifice.’

He said: ‘And where do they go who have performed a horse-sacrifice?’

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avalkya replied: ‘Thirty-two journeys of the car of the sun is this world. The earth surrounds it on every side, twice as large, and the ocean surrounds this earth on every side, twice as large. Now there is between 1 them a space as large as the edge of a razor or the wing of a mosquito. Indra, having become a bird, handed them (through the space) to Vâyu (the air), and Vâyu (the air), holding them within himself, conveyed them to where they dwell who have performed a horse-sacrifice. Somewhat in this way did he praise Vâyu indeed. Therefore Vâyu (air) is everything by itself, and Vâyu is all things together. He who knows this, conquers death.’ After that Bhugyu Lâhyâyani held his peace.


Footnotes

127:2 Mâdhyandina text, p. 1070.

127:3 The commentator explains karakâh as adhyayanârtham vratakaranâk karakâh, adhvaryavo vâ. See Professor R. G. Bhandarkar, in Indian Antiquary, 1883, p. 145.

127:4 An old royal race, supposed to have vanished from the earth.

128:1 The commentator explains that this small space or hole is between the two halves of the mundane egg.

FOURTH BRÂHMANA 2.

1. Then Ushasta Kâkrâyana asked. ‘Yâavalkya,’ he said, ‘tell me the Brahman which is visible, not invisible 3, the Self (âtman), who is within all.’

avalkya replied: ‘This, thy Self, who is within all.’

‘Which Self, O Yâavalkya, is within all?’

avalkya replied: ‘He who breathes in the up-breathing, he is thy Self, and within all. He who breathes in the down-breathing, he is thy Self, and within all. He who breathes in the on-breathing, he is thy Self, and within all. He who breathes in

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the out-breathing, he is thy Self, and within all. This is thy Self, who is within all.’

2. Ushasta Kâkrâyana said: ‘As one might say, this is a cow, this is a horse, thus has this been explained by thee. Tell me the Brahman which is visible, not invisible, the Self, who is within all.’

avalkya replied: ‘This, thy Self, who is within all.’

‘Which Self, O Yâavalkya, is within all?’

avalkya replied: ‘Thou couldst not see the (true) seer of sight, thou couldst not hear the (true) hearer of hearing, nor perceive the perceiver of perception, nor know the knower of knowledge. This is thy Self, who is within all. Everything also is of evil.’ After that Ushasta Kâkrâyana held his peace.


Footnotes

128:2 Mâdhyandina text, p. 1071. It follows after what is here the fifth Brâhmana, treating of Kahoda Kaushîtakeya.

128:3 Deussen, Vedanta, p. 163, translates, ‘das immanente, nicht transcendente Brahman,’ which is right, but too modern.

FIFTH BRÂHMANA 1.

1. Then Kahola Kaushîtakeya asked. ‘Yâavalkya, ‘he said, ‘tell me the Brahman which is visible, not invisible, the Self (Âtman), who is within all.’

avalkya replied: ‘This, thy Self, who is within all.’

‘Which Self, O Yâavalkya, is within all?’

avalkya replied: ‘He who overcomes hunger and thirst, sorrow, passion, old age, and death. When Brâhmanas know that Self, and have risen above the desire for sons 2, wealth, and (new) worlds 3, they wander about as mendicants. For a desire for sons is desire for wealth, a desire for wealth is desire for worlds. Both these are indeed desires. Therefore let a Brâhmana, after he has done with learning,

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wish to stand by real strength 1; after he has done with that strength and learning, he becomes a Muni (a Yogin); and after he has done with what is not the knowledge of a Muni, and with what is the knowledge of a Muni, he is a Brâhmana. By whatever means he has become a Brâhmana, he is such indeed 2. Everything else is of evil.’ After that Kahola Kaushîtakeya held his peace.


Footnotes

129:1 Mâdhyandina text, p. 1071, standing before the fourth Brâhmana.

129:2 See Brih. Âr. Up. IV, 4, 22.

129:3 Life in the world of the Fathers, or in the world of the Gods.

130:1 Knowledge of the Self, which enables us to dispense with all other knowledge.

130:2 Mr. Gough proposes as an alternative rendering: ‘Let a Brâhmana renounce learning and become as a child; and after renouncing learning and a childlike mind, let him become a quietist; and when he has made an end of quietism and non-quietism, he shall become a Brâhmana, a Brâhmana indeed.’ Deussen takes a similar view, but I doubt whether ‘the knowledge of babes’ is not a Christian rather than an Indian idea, in spite of Sankara’s remarks on Ved. Sûtra, III, 4, 50, which are strangely at variance with his commentary here. Possibly the text may be corrupt, for tishthâset too is a very peculiar form. We might conjecture balyena, as we have abalyam, in IV, 4, 1. In Kaush. Up. III, 3, âbâlyam stands for âbălyam, possibly for ăbălyam. The construction of kena syâd yena syât tenedrisa eva, however, is well known.

SIXTH BRÂHMANA 3.

1. Then Gârgî Vâkaknavî asked. ‘Yâavalkya,’ she said, ‘everything here is woven, like warp and woof, in water. What then is that in which water is woven, like warp and woof?’

‘In air, O Gârgî,’ he replied.

‘In what then is air woven, like warp and woof?’

‘In the worlds of the sky, O Gârgî, ‘he replied.

‘In what then are the worlds of the sky woven, like warp and woof?’

‘In the worlds of the Gandharvas, O Gârgî,’ he replied.

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‘In what then are the worlds of the Gandharvas woven, like warp and woof?’

‘In the worlds of Âditya (sun), O Gârgî,’ he replied.

‘In what then are the worlds of Âditya (sun) woven, like warp and woof?’

‘In the worlds of Kandra (moon), O Gârgî,’ he replied.

‘In what then are the worlds of Kandra (moon) woven, like warp and woof?’

, In the worlds of the Nakshatras (stars), O Gârgî,’ he replied.

‘In what then are the worlds of the Nakshatras (stars) woven, like warp and woof?’

‘In the worlds of the Devas (gods), O Gârgî,’ he replied.

‘In what then are the worlds of the Devas (gods) woven, like warp and woof?’

‘In the worlds of Indra, O Gârgî,’ he replied.

‘In what then are the worlds of Indra woven, like warp and woof?’

‘In the worlds of Pragâpati, O Gârgî,’ he replied.

‘In what then are the worlds of Pragâpati woven, like warp and woof?’

‘In the worlds of Brahman, O Gârgî,’ he replied.

‘In what then are the worlds of Brahman woven, like warp and woof?’

avalkya said: ‘O Gârgî, Do not ask too much, lest thy head should fall off. Thou askest too much about a deity about which we are not to ask too much 1. Do not ask too much, O Gârgî.’ After that Gargî Vâkaknavî held her peace.


Footnotes

130:3 Mâdhyandina text, p. 1072.

131:1 According to the commentator questions about Brahman are to be answered from the Scriptures only, and not to be settled by argument.

SEVENTH BRÂHMANA 1.

1. Then Uddâlaka Âruni 2 asked. ‘Yâavalkya,’ he said, ‘we dwelt among the Madras in the houses of Patañkala Kâpya, studying the sacrifice. His wife was possessed of a Gandharva, and we asked him: “Who art thou?” He answered: “I am Kabandha Âtharvana.” And he said to Patañkala Kâpya and to (us) students: “Dost thou know, Kâpya, that thread by which this world and the other world, and all beings are strung together?” And Patañkala Kâpya replied: “I do not know it, Sir.” He said again to Patañkala Kâpya and to (us) students: “Dost thou know, Kâpya, that puller (ruler) within (antaryâmin), who within pulls (rules) this world and the other world and all beings?” And Patañkala Kâpya replied: “I do not know it, Sir.” He said again to Patañkala Kâpya and to (us) students: “He, O Kâpya, who knows that thread and him who pulls (it) within, he knows Brahman, he knows the worlds, he knows the Devas, he knows the Vedas, he knows the Bhûtas (creatures), he knows the Self, he knows everything.” Thus did he (the Gandharva) say to them, and I know it. If thou, O Yâavalkya, without knowing that string and the puller within, drivest away those Brahma-cows (the cows offered as a prize to him who best knows Brahman), thy head will fall off.’

avalkya said: ‘O Gautama, I believe I know that thread and the puller within.’

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The other said: ‘Anybody may say, I know, I know. Tell what thou knowest.’

2. Yâavalkya said: ‘Vâyu (air) is that thread, O Gautama. By air, as by a thread, O Gautama, this world and the other world, and all creatures are strung together. Therefore, O Gautama, people say of a dead person that his limbs have become unstrung; for by air, as by a thread, O Gautama, they were strung together.’

The other said: ‘So it is, O Yâavalkya. Tell now (who is) the puller within.’

3. Yâavalkya said: ‘He who dwells in the earth, and within the earth 1, whom the earth does not know, whose body the earth is, and who pulls (rules) the earth within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.’

4. ‘He who dwells in the water, and within the water, whom the water does not know, whose body the water is, and who pulls (rules) the water within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.’

5. ‘He who dwells in the fire, and within the fire, whom the fire does not know, whose body the fire is, and who pulls (rules) the fire within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.’

6. ‘He who dwells in the sky, and within the sky, whom the sky does not know, whose body the sky is, and who pulls (rules) the sky within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.’

7. ‘He who dwells in the air (vâyu), and within the air, whom the air does not know, whose body the

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air is, and who pulls (rules) the air within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.’

8. ‘He who dwells in the heaven (dyu), and within the heaven, whom the heaven does not know, whose body the heaven is, and who pulls (rules) the heaven within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.’

9. ‘He who dwells in the sun (Âditya), and within the sun, whom the sun does not know, whose body the sun is, and who pulls (rules) the sun within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.’

10. ‘He who dwells in the space (disah), and within the space, whom the space does not know, whose body the space is, and who pulls (rules) the space within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.’

11. ‘He who dwells in the moon and stars (kandra-târakam), and within the moon and stars, whom the moon and stars do not know, whose body the moon and stars are, and who pulls (rules) the moon and stars within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.’

12. ‘He who dwells in the ether (âkâsa), and within the ether, whom the ether does not know, whose body the ether is, and who pulls (rules) the ether within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.’

13. ‘He who dwells in the darkness (tamas), and within the darkness, whom the darkness does not know, whose body the darkness is, and who pulls (rules) the darkness within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.’

14. ‘He who dwells in the light (tegas), and within the light, whom the light does not know, whose

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body the light is, and who pulls (rules) the light within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.’

So far with respect to the gods (adhidaivatam); now with respect to beings (adhibhûtam).

15. Yâavalkya said: ‘He who dwells in all beings, and within all beings, whom all beings do not know, whose body all beings are, and who pulls (rules) all beings within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.’

16. ‘He who dwells in the breath (prâna), and within the breath, whom the breath does not know, whose body the breath is, and who pulls (rules) the breath within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.’

17. ‘He who dwells in the tongue (vâk), and within the tongue, whom the tongue does not know, whose body the tongue is, and who pulls (rules) the tongue within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.’

18. ‘He who dwells in the eye, and within the eye, whom the eye does not know, whose body the eye is, and who pulls (rules) the eye within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.’

19. ‘He who dwells in the ear, and within the ear, whom the ear does not know, whose body the ear is, and who pulls (rules) the ear within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.’

20. ‘He who dwells in the mind, and within the mind, whom the mind does not know, whose body the mind is, and who pulls (rules) the mind within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.’

21. ‘He who dwells in the skin, and within the skin, whom the skin does not know, whose body the

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skin is, and who pulls (rules) the skin within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.’

22. ‘He who dwells in knowledge 1, and within knowledge, whom knowledge does not know, whose body knowledge is, and who pulls (rules) knowledge within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.’

23. ‘He who dwells in the seed, and within the seed, whom the seed does not know, whose body the seed is, and who pulls (rules) the seed within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal; unseen, but seeing; unheard, but hearing; unperceived, but perceiving; unknown, but knowing. There is no other seer but he, there is no other hearer but he, there is no other perceiver but he, there is no other knower but he. This is thy Self, the ruler within, the immortal. Everything else is of evil.’ After that Uddâlaka Âruni held his peace.


Footnotes

132:1 Mâdhyandina text, p. 1072.

132:2 Afterwards addressed as Gautama; see before, p. 1, note.

133:1 I translate antara by ‘within,’ according to the commentator, who explains it by abhyantara, but I must confess that I should prefer to translate it by ‘different from,’ as Deussen does, l. c. p. 160, particularly as it governs an ablative.

136:1 Self, i.e. the individual Self, according to the Mâdhyandina school; see Deussen, p. 161.

EIGHTH BRÂHMANA 2.

1. Then Vâkaknavî 3 said: ‘Venerable Brâhmanas, I shall ask him two questions. If he will answer them, none of you, I think, will defeat him in any argument concerning Brahman.’

avalkya said: ‘Ask, O Gârgî.’

2. She said: ‘O Yâavalkya, as the son of a warrior from the Kâsîs or Videhas might string his loosened bow, take two pointed foe-piercing arrows in his hand and rise to do battle, I have risen to

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fight thee with two questions. Answer me these questions.’

avalkya said: ‘Ask, O Gârgî.’

3. She said: ‘O Yâavalkya, that of which they say that it is above the heavens, beneath the earth, embracing heaven and earth 1, past, present, and future, tell me in what is it woven, like warp and woof?’

4. Yâavalkya said: ‘That of which they say that it is above the heavens, beneath the earth, embracing heaven and earth, past, present, and future, that is woven, like warp and woof, in the ether (âkâsa).’

5. She said: ‘I bow to thee, O Yâavalkya, who hast solved me that question. Get thee ready for the second.’

avalkya said 2: ‘Ask, O Gârgî.’

6. She said: ‘O Yâavalkya, that of which they say that it is above the heavens, beneath the earth, embracing heaven and earth, past, present, and future, tell me in what is it woven, like warp and woof?’

7. Yâavalkya said: ‘That of which they say that it is above the heavens, beneath the earth, embracing heaven and earth, past, present, and future, that is woven, like warp and woof, in the ether.’

Gârgî said: ‘In what then is the ether woven, like warp and woof?’

8. He said: ‘O Gârgî, the Brâhmanas call this the Akshara (the imperishable). It is neither coarse nor fine, neither short nor long, neither red (like fire) nor fluid (like water); it is without shadow, without darkness, without air, without ether, without

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attachment 1, without taste, without smell, without eyes, without ears, without speech, without mind, without light (vigour), without breath, without a mouth (or door), without measure, having no within and no without, it devours nothing, and no one devours it.’

9. ‘By the command of that Akshara (the imperishable), O Gârgî, sun and moon stand apart 2. By the command of that Akshara, O Gârgî, heaven and earth stand apart. By the command of that Akshara, O Gârgî, what are called moments (nimesha), hours (muhûrta), days and nights, half-months, months, seasons, years, all stand apart. By the command of that Akshara, O Gârgî, some rivers flow to the East from the white mountains, others to the West, or to any other quarter. By the command of that Akshara, O Gârgî, men praise those who give, the gods follow the sacrificer, the fathers the Darvî-offering.’

10. ‘Whosoever, O Gârgî, without knowing that Akshara (the imperishable), offers oblations in this world, sacrifices, and performs penance for a thousand years, his work will have an end. Whosoever, O Gargî, without knowing this Akshara, departs this world, he is miserable (like a slave) 3. But he, O Gârgî, who departs this world, knowing this Akshara, he is a Brâhmana.’

11. ‘That Brahman,’ O Gârgî, ‘is unseen, but seeing; unheard, but hearing; unperceived, but perceiving; unknown, but knowing. There is nothing

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that sees but it, nothing that hears but it, nothing that perceives but it, nothing that knows but it. In that Akshara then, O Gârgî, the ether is woven, like warp and woof.’

12. Then said Gargî: ‘Venerable Brâhmans, you may consider it a great thing, if you get off by bowing before him. No one, I believe, will defeat him in any argument concerning Brahman.’ After that Vâkaknavî held her peace.


Footnotes

136:2 Mâdhyandina text, p. 1075.

136:3 Gârgî, not the wife of Yâavalkya.

137:1 Deussen, p. 143, translates, ‘between heaven and earth,’ but that would be the antariksha.

137:2 This repetition does not occur in the Mâdhyandina text.

138:1 Not adhering to anything, like lac or gum.

138:2 Each follows its own course.

138:3 He stores up the effects from work, like a miser his riches,’ Roer. ‘He is helpless,’ Gough.

NINTH BRÂHMANA 1.

1. Then Vidagdha Sâkalya asked him 2: ‘How many gods are there, O Yâavalkya?’ He replied with this very Nivid 3: ‘As many as are mentioned in the Nivid of the hymn of praise addressed to the Visvedevas, viz. three and three hundred, three and three thousand 4.’

‘Yes,’ he said, and asked again: ‘How many gods are there really, O Yâavalkya?’

‘Thirty-three,’ he said.

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‘Yes,’ he said, and asked again: ‘How many gods are there really, O Yâavalkya?’

‘Six,’ he said.

‘Yes,’ he said, and asked again: ‘How many gods are there really, O Yâavalkya?’

‘Three,’ he said.

‘Yes,’ he said, and asked again: ‘How many gods are there really, O Yâavalkya?’

‘Two,’ he said.

‘Yes,’ he said, and asked again: ‘How many gods are there really, O Yâavalkya?’

‘One and a half (adhyardha),’ he said.

‘Yes,’ he said, and asked again: ‘How many gods are there really, O Yâavalkya?’

‘One,’ he said.

‘Yes,’ he said, and asked: ‘Who are these three and three hundred, three and three thousand?’

2. Yâavalkya replied: ‘They are only the various powers of them, in reality there are only thirty-three gods 1.’

He asked: ‘Who are those thirty-three?’

avalkya replied: ‘The eight Vasus, the eleven Rudras, the twelve Âdityas. They make thirty-one, and Indra and Pragâpati make the thirty-three 2.’

3. He asked: ‘Who are the Vasus.’

avalkya replied: ‘Agni (fire), Prithivî (earth), Vâyu (air), Antariksha (sky), Âditya (sun), Dyu (heaven), Kandramas (moon), the Nakshatras (stars), these are the Vasus, for in them all that dwells (this world) 3 rests; and therefore they are called Vasus.’

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4. He asked: ‘Who are the Rudras?’

avalkya replied: ‘These ten vital breaths (prânas, the senses, i.e. the five ânendriyas, and the five karmendriyas), and Âtman 1, as the eleventh. When they depart from this mortal body, they make us cry (rodayanti), and because they make us cry, they are called Rudras.’

5. He asked: ‘Who are the Âdityas?’

avalkya replied: ‘The twelve months of the year, and they are Âdityas, because they move along (yanti), taking up everything 2 (âdadânâh). Because they move along, taking up everything, therefore they are called Âdityas.’

6. He asked: ‘And who is Indra, and who is Pragâpati?’

avalkya replied: ‘Indra is thunder, Pragâpati is the sacrifice.’

He asked: ‘And what is the thunder?’

avalkya replied: ‘The thunderbolt.’

He asked: ‘And what is the sacrifice?’

avalkya replied: ‘The (sacrificial) animals.’

7. He asked: ‘Who are the six?’

avalkya replied: ‘Agni (fire), Prithivî (earth), Vâyu (air), Antariksha (sky), Âditya (sun), Dyu (heaven), they are the six, for they are all 3 this, the six.’

8. He asked: ‘Who are the three gods?’

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avalkya replied: ‘These three worlds, for in them all these gods exist.’

He asked: ‘Who are the two gods?’

avalkya replied: ‘Food and breath.’

He asked: ‘Who is the one god and a half?’

avalkya replied: ‘He that blows.’

9. Here they say: ‘How is it that he who blows like one only, should be called one and a half (adhyardha)?’ And the answer is: ‘Because, when the wind was blowing, everything grew (adhyardhnot).’

He asked: ‘Who is the one god?’

avalkya replied: ‘Breath (prâna), and he is Brahman (the Sûtrâtman), and they call him That (tyad).’

10. Sâkalya said 1: ‘Whosoever knows that person (or god) whose dwelling (body) is the earth, whose sight (world) is fire 2, whose mind is light,–the principle

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of every (living) self, he indeed is a teacher, O Yâavalkya.’

avalkya said: ‘I know that person, the principle of every self, of whom thou speakest. This corporeal (material, earthy) person, “he is he.” But tell me 1, Sâkalya, who is his devatâ 2 (deity)?’

Sâkalya replied: ‘The Immortal 3.’

11. Sâkalya said: ‘Whosoever knows that person whose dwelling is love (a body capable of sensual love), whose sight is the heart, whose mind is light.–the principle of every self, he indeed is a teacher, O Yâavalkya.’

avalkya replied: ‘I know that person, the principle of every self, of whom thou speakest. This love-made (loving) person, he is he.” But tell me, Sâkalya, who is his devatâ?’

Sâkalya replied: ‘The women 4.’

12. Sâkalya said: ‘Whosoever knows that person whose dwelling are the colours, whose sight is the eye, whose mind is light,–the principle of every self, he indeed is a teacher, O Yâavalkya.’

avalkya replied: ‘I know that person, the principle of every self, of whom thou speakest. That person in the sun, “he is he.” But tell me, Sâkalya, who is his devatâ?’

Sâkalya replied: ‘The True 5.’

13. Sâkalya said: ‘Whosoever knows that person

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whose dwelling is ether, whose sight is the ear, whose mind is light,–the principle of every self, he indeed is a teacher, O Yâavalkya.’

avalkya replied: ‘I know that person, the principle of every self, of whom thou speakest. The person who hears 1 and answers, “he is he.” But tell me, Sâkalya, who is his devatâ?’

Sâkalya replied: ‘Space.’

14. Sâkalya said: ‘Whosoever knows that person whose dwelling is darkness, whose sight is the heart, whose mind is light,–the principle of every self, he indeed is a teacher, O Yâavalkya.’

avalkya replied: ‘I know that person, the principle of every self, of whom thou speakest. The shadowy 2 person, “he is he.” But tell me, Sâkalya, who is his devatâ?’

Sâkalya replied: ‘Death.’

15. Sâkalya said: ‘Whosoever knows that person whose dwelling are (bright) colours, whose sight is the eye, whose mind is light,–the principle of every self, he indeed is a teacher, O Yâavalkya.’

avalkya replied: ‘I know that person, the principle of every self, of whom thou speakest. The person in the looking-glass, “he is he.” But tell me, Sâkalya, who is his devatâ?’

Sâkalya replied: ‘Vital breath’ (asu).

16. Sâkalya said: ‘Whosoever knows that person whose dwelling is water, whose sight is the heart, whose mind is light,–the principle of every self, he indeed is a teacher, O Yâavalkya.’

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avalkya replied: ‘I know that person, the principle of every self, of whom thou speakest. The person in the water, “he is he.” But tell me, Sâkalya, who is his devatâ?’

Sâkalya replied: ‘Varuna.’

17. Sâkalya said: ‘Whosoever knows that person whose dwelling is seed, whose sight is the heart, whose mind is light,–the principle of every self, he indeed is a teacher, O Yâavalkya.’

avalkya replied: ‘I know that person, the principle of every self, of whom thou speakest. The filial person, “he is he.” But tell me, Sâkalya, who is his devatâ?’

Sâkalya replied: ‘Pragâpati.’

18. Yâavalkya said: ‘Sâkalya, did those Brâhmanas (who themselves shrank from the contest) make thee the victim 1?’

Sâkalya said: ‘Yâavalkya, because thou hast decried the Brâhmanas of the Kuru-Pañkâlas, what 2 Brahman dost thou know?’

19. Yâavalkya said: ‘I know the quarters with their deities and their abodes.’

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Sâkalya said: ‘If thou knowest the quarters with their deities and their abodes,

20. ‘Which is thy deity in the Eastern quarter?’

avalkya said: ‘Âditya (the sun).’

Sâkalya said: ‘In what does that Âditya abide?’

avalkya said: ‘In the eye.’

Sâkalya said: ‘In what does the eye abide?’

avalkya said: ‘In the colours, for with the eye he sees the colours.’

Sâkalya said: ‘And in what then do the colours abide?’

avalkya said: ‘In the heart 1, for we know colours by the heart, for colours abide in the heart 2.’

Sâkalya said: ‘So it is indeed, O Yâavalkya.’

21. Sâkalya said: ‘Which is thy deity in the Southern quarter?’

avalkya said: ‘Yama.’

Sâkalya said: ‘In what does that Yama abide?’

avalkya said: ‘In the sacrifice.’

Sâkalya said: ‘In what does the sacrifice abide?’

avalkya said: ‘In the Dakshinâ (the gifts to be given to the priests).’

Sâkalya said: ‘In what does the Dakshinâ abide?’

avalkya said: ‘In Sraddhâ (faith), for if a man believes, then he gives Dakshinâ, and Dakshinâ truly abides in faith.’

Sâkalya said: ‘And in what then does faith abide?’

avalkya said: ‘In the heart, for by the heart faith knows, and therefore faith abides in the heart.’

Sâkalya said: ‘So it is indeed, O Yâavalkya.’

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22. Sâkalya said: ‘Which is thy deity in the Western quarter?’

avalkya said: ‘Varuna.’

Sâkalya said: ‘In what does that Varuna abide?’

avalkya said: ‘In the water.’

Sâkalya said: ‘In what does the water abide?’

avalkya said: ‘In the seed.’

Sâkalya said: ‘And in what does the seed abide?’

avalkya said: ‘In the heart. And therefore also they say of a son who is like his father, that he seems as if slipt from his heart, or made from his heart; for the seed abides in the heart.’

Sâkalya said: ‘So it is indeed, O Yâavalkya.’

23. Sâkalya said: ‘Which is thy deity in the Northern quarter?’

avalkya said: ‘Soma.’

Sâkalya said: ‘In what does that Soma abide?’

avalkya said: ‘In the Dîkshâ 1.’

Sâkalya said: ‘In what does the Dîkshâ abide?’

avalkya said: ‘In the True; and therefore they say to one who has performed the Dîkshâ, Speak what is true, for in the True indeed the Dîkshâ abides.’

Sâkalya said: ‘And in what does the True abide?’

avalkya said: ‘In the heart, for with the heart do we know what is true, and in the heart indeed the True abides.’

Sâkalya said: ‘So it is indeed, O Yâavalkya.’

24. Sâkalya said: ‘Which is thy deity in the zenith?’

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avalkya said: ‘Agni.’

Sâkalya said: ‘In what does that Agni abide.’

avalkya said: ‘In speech.’

Sâkalya said: ‘And in what does speech abide

avalkya said: ‘In the heart.’

Sâkalya said: ‘And in what does the heart abide?’

2 5. Yâavalkya said: ‘O Ahallika 1, when you think the heart could be anywhere else away from us, if it were away from us, the dogs might eat it, or the birds tear it.’

26. Sâkalya said: ‘And in what dost thou (thy body) and the Self (thy heart) abide?’

avalkya said: ‘In the Prâna (breath).’

Sâkalya said: ‘In what does the Prâna abide?’

avalkya said: In the Apâna (down-breathing) 2.’

Sâkalya said: ‘In what does the Apâna abide?’

avalkya said: ‘In the Vyâna (back-breathing ) 3.’

Sâkalya said: ‘In what does the Vyâna-abide?’

avalkya said: ‘In the Udâna (the out-breathing) 4.’

Sâkalya said: ‘In what does the Udâna abide?’

avalkya said: ‘In the Samâna 5. That Self

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[paragraph continues] (âtman) is to be described by No, no 1! He is incomprehensible, for he cannot be (is not) comprehended; he is imperishable, for he cannot perish; he is unattached, for he does not attach himself; unfettered, he does not suffer, he does not fail.’

‘These are the eight abodes (the earth, &c.), the eight worlds (fire, &c.), the eight gods (the immortal food, &c.), the eight persons (the corporeal, &c.) He who after dividing and uniting these persons 2, went beyond (the Samâna), that person, taught in the Upanishads, I now ask thee (to teach me). If thou shalt not explain him to me, thy head will fall.’

Sâkalya did not know him, and his head fell, nay, thieves took away his bones, mistaking them for something else.

27. Then Yâavalkya said: ‘Reverend Brâhmanas, whosoever among you desires to do so, may now question me. Or question me, all of you. Or whosoever among you desires it, I shall question him, or I shall question all of you.

But those Brâhmanas durst not (say anything).

28. Then Yâavalkya questioned them with these Slokas:

1. ‘As a mighty tree in the forest, so in truth is man, his hairs are the leaves, his outer skin is the bark.

2. ‘From his skin flows forth blood, sap from the skin (of the tree); and thus from the wounded

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man 1 comes forth blood, as from a tree that is struck.

3. ‘The lumps of his flesh are (in the tree) the layers of wood, the fibre is strong like the tendons 2 . The bones are the (hard) wood within, the marrow is made like the marrow of the tree.

4. ‘But, while the tree, when felled, grows up again more young from the root, from what root, tell me, does a mortal grow up, after he has been felled by death?

5. ‘Do not say, “from seed,” for seed is produced from the living 3; but a tree, springing from a grain, clearly 4 rises again after death 5.

6. ‘If a tree is pulled up with the root, it will not grow again; from what root then, tell me, does a mortal grow up, after he has been felled by death?

7. ‘Once born, he is not born (again); for who should create him again 6?’

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‘Brahman, who is knowledge and bliss, he is the principle, both to him who gives gifts 1, and also to him who stands firm, and knows.’


Footnotes

139:1 Mâdhyandina text, p. 1076.

139:2 This disputation between Yâavalkya and Vidagdha Sâkalya occurs in a simpler form in the Satapatha-brâhmana, XI, p. 873. He is here represented as the first who defies Yâavalkya, and whom Yâavalkya asks at once, whether the other Brâhmans had made him the ulmukâvakshayana, the cat’s paw, literally one who has to take a burning piece of wood out of the fire (ardha. dagdhakâshtham ulmukam; tasya vahirnirasanam avakshayanam vinâsah). The end, however, is different, for on asking the nature of the one god, the Prâna, he is told by Yâavalkya that he has asked for what he ought not to ask, and that therefore he will die and thieves will carry away his bones.

139:3 Nivid, old and short invocations of the gods; devatâsankhyâvâkakâni mantrapâdni kânikid vaisvadeve sastre sasyante. Sankara, and Dvivedaganga.

139:4 This would make 3306 devatâs.

140:1 ‘The glories of these are three and thirty.’ Gough, p. 172.

140:2 Trayastrimsau, i.e. trayastrimsatah pûranau.

140:3 The etymological explanation of Vasu is not quite clear, and p. 141 the commentator hardly explains our text. Perhaps vasu is meant for the world or the dwellers therein. The more usual explanation occurs in the Satap. Brâh. p. 1077, ete hîdam sarvam vâsayante tadyad idam sarvam vâsayante tasmâd vasava iti; or on p. 874, where we read te yad idam sarvam &c.

141:1 Âtman is here explained as manas, the common sensory.

141:2 The life of men, and the fruits of their work.

141:3 They are the thirty-three gods.

142:1 I prefer to attribute this to Sâkalya, who is still the questioner, and not Yâavalkya; but I am not quite satisfied that I am right in this, or in the subsequent distribution of the parts, assigned to each speaker. If Sâkalya is the questioner, then the sentence, veda vâ aham tam purusham sarvasyâtmanah parâyanam yam âttha, must belong to Yâavalkya, because he refers to the words of another speaker. Lastly, the sentence vadaiva has to be taken as addressed to Sâkalya. The commentator remarks that, he being the questioner, one expects prikkha instead of vada. But Yâavalkya may also be supposed to turn round on Sâkalya and ask him a question in turn, more difficult than the question addressed by Sâkalya to Yâavalkya, and in that case the last sentence must be taken as an answer, though an imperfect one, of Sâkalya’s. The commentator seems to think that after Yâavalkya told Sâkalya to ask this question, Sâkalya was frightened and asked it, and that then Yâavalkya answered in turn.

142:2 The Mâdhyandina text varies considerably. It has the first time, kashur lokah for agnir lokah. I keep to the same construction throughout, taking mano gyotih, not as a compound, but like agnir loko yasya, as a sentence, i.e. mano gyotir yasya.

143:1 Ask me. Comm.

143:2 That from which he is produced, that is his devatâ. Comm.

143:3 According to the commentator, the essence of food, which produces blood, from which the germ receives life and becomes an embryo and a living being.

143:4 Because they excite the fire of love. Comm.

143:5 The commentator explains satya, the true, by the eye, because the sun owes its origin to the eye.

144:1 Read srautra instead of srotra; see Brih. Âr. Up. II, 5, 6.

144:2 Shadow, khâyâ, is explained here by aâna, ignorance, not by âna, knowledge.

145:1 Angârâvakshayana is explained as a vessel in which coals are extinguished, and Ânandagiri adds that Yâavalkya, in saying that Sâkalya was made an angârâvakshayana by his fellow Brâhmans, meant that he was given up by them as a victim, in fact that he was being burnt or consumed by Yâavalkya. I should prefer to take angârâvakshayana in the sense of ulmukâvakshayana, an instrument with which one takes burning coals from the fire to extinguish them, a pair of tongs. Read sandamsa instead of sandesa. Kshi with ava means to remove, to take away. We should call an angârâvakshayana a cat’s paw. The Brâhmanas used Sâkalya as a cat’s paw.

145:2 It seems better to take kim as the interrogative pronoun than as an interrogative particle.

146:1 Heart stands here for buddhi and manas together. Comm.

146:2 In the text, published by Dr. Roer in the Bibliotheca Indica, a sentence is left out, viz. hridaya ity uvâka, hridayena hi rûpâni gânâti, hridaye hy eva rûpâni pratishthitâni bhavantîty.

147:1 Dîkshâ is the initiatory rite for the Soma sacrifice. Having sacrificed with Soma which has to be bought, the sacrificer becomes endowed with wisdom, and wanders to the North, which is the quarter of Soma.

148:1 A term of reproach, it may be a ghost or preta, because ahani lîyate, it disappears by day.

148:2 Because the prâna would run away, if it were not held back by the apâna.

148:3 Because the apâna would run down, and the prâna up, if they were not held back by the vyâna.

148:4 Because all three, the prâna, apâna, and vyâna, would run away in all directions, if they were not fastened to the udâna.

148:5 The Samâna can hardly be meant here for one of the five prânas, generally mentioned before the udâna, but, as explained by Dvivedaganga, stands for the Sûtrâtman. This Sûtrâtman abides in the Antaryâmin, and this in the Brahman (Kûtastha), which is p. 149 therefore described next. Could Samâna be here the same as in IV, 3, 7?

149:1 See before, II, 3, 6; also IV, 2, 4; IV, 4, 22; IV, 5, 115.

149:2 Dividing them according to the different abodes, worlds, and persons, and uniting them at last in the heart.

150:1 In the Mâdhyandina-sâkhâ, p. 1080, tasmât tadâtunnât, instead of tasmât tadâtrinnât.

150:2 Sankara seems to have read snâvavat, instead of snâva, tat sthiram, as we read in both Sâkhâs.

150:3 Here the Mâdhyandinas (p. 1080) add, gâta eva na gâyate, ko nv enam ganayet punah, which the Kânvas place later.

150:4 Instead of añgasâ, the Mâdhyandinas have anyatah.

150:5 The Mâdhyandinas have dhânâruha u vai, which is better than iva vai, the iva being, according to Sankara’s own confession, useless. The thread of the argument does not seem to have been clearly perceived by the commentators. What the poet wants to say is, that a man, struck down by death, does not come to life again from seed, because human seed comes from the living only, while trees, springing from grain, are seen to come to life after the tree (which yielded the grain or the seed) is dead. Pretya-sambhava like pretya-bhâva, means life after death, and pretyasambhava, as an adjective, means coming to life after death.

150:6 This line too is taken in a different sense by the commentator. According to him, it would mean: ‘If you say, He has been born p. 151 (and there is an end of all questioning), I say, No; he is born again, and the question is, How?’ This is much too artificial. The order of the verses in the Mâdhyandina-sâkhâ is better on the whole, leading up more naturally to the question, ‘From what root then does a mortal grow up, after he has been felled by death?’ When the Brâhmans cannot answer, Yâavalkya answers, or the Sruti declares, that the root from whence a mortal springs again, after death, is Brahman.

151:1 Sankara explains râtir dâtuh as râter dâtuh, a reading adopted by the Mâdhyandinas. He then arrives at the statement that Brahman is the principle or the last source, also the root of a new life, both for those who practise works and for those who, having relinquished works, stand firm in knowledge. Regnaud (II, p. 138) translates: ‘C’est Brahma (qui est) l’intelligence, le bonheur, la richesse, le but suprême de celui qui offre (des sacrifices), et de celui qui réside (en lui), de celui qui connaît.’

FOURTH ADHYÂYA.

FIRST BRÂHMANA.

1. When Ganaka Vaideha was sitting (to give audience), Yâavalkya approached, and Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘Yâavalkya, for what object did you come, wishing for cattle, or for subtle questions 1?’

avalkya replied: ‘For both, Your Majesty;

2. ‘Let us hear what anybody may have told you.’

Ganaka Vaideha replied: ‘Gitvan Sailini told me that speech (vâk) is Brahman.’

avalkya said: ‘As one who had (the benefit of a good) father, mother, and teacher might tell, so did Sailini 2 tell you, that speech is Brahman; for what is the use of a dumb person? But did he tell you the body (âyatana) and the resting-place (pratishthâ) of that Brahman?’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘He did not tell me.’

avalkya said: ‘Your Majesty, this (Brahman) stands on one leg only 3.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘Then tell me, Yâavalkya.’

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avalkya said: ‘The tongue is its body, ether its place, and one should worship it as knowledge.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘What is the nature of that knowledge?’

avalkya replied: ‘Your Majesty, speech itself (is knowledge). For through speech, Your Majesty, a friend is known (to be a friend), and likewise the Rig-Veda, Yagur-veda, Sâma-veda, the Atharvângirasas, the Itihâsa (tradition), Purâna-vidyâ (knowledge of the past), the Upanishads, Slokas (verses), Sûtras (rules), Anuvyâkhyânas and Vyâkhyânas (commentaries 1, &c.); what is sacrificed, what is poured out, what is (to be) eaten and drunk, this world and the other world, and all creatures. By speech alone, Your Majesty, Brahman is known, speech indeed, O King, is the Highest Brahman. Speech does not desert him who worships that (Brahman) with such knowledge, all creatures approach him, and having become a god, he goes to the gods.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘I shall give you (for this) a thousand cows with a bull as big as an elephant.’

avalkya said: ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept a reward without having fully instructed a pupil.’

3. Yâavalkya said: ‘Let us hear what anybody may have told you.’

Ganaka Vaideha replied: ‘Udanka Saulbâyana told me that life (prâna) 2 is Brahman.’

avalkya said: ‘As one who had (the benefit of a good) father, mother, and teacher might tell, so did

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[paragraph continues] Udanka Saulbâyana tell you that life is Brahman; for what is the use of a person without life? But did he tell you the body and the resting-place of that Brahman?’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘He did not tell me.’

avalkya said: ‘Your Majesty, this (Brahman) stands on one leg only.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘Then tell me, Yâavalkya.’

avalkya said: ‘Breath is its body, ether its place, and one should worship it as what is dear.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘What is the nature of that which is dear?’

avalkya replied: ‘Your Majesty, life itself (is that which is dear);’ because for the sake of life, Your Majesty, a man sacrifices even for him who is unworthy of sacrifice, he accepts presents from him who is not worthy to bestow presents, nay, he goes to a country, even when there is fear of being hurt 1, for the sake of life. Life, O King, is the Highest Brahman. Life does not desert him who worships that (Brahman) with such knowledge, all creatures approach him, and having become a god, he goes to the gods.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘I shall give you (for this) a thousand cows with a bull as big as an elephant.’

avalkya said: ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept a reward without having fully instructed a pupil.’

4. Yâavalkya said: ‘Let us hear what anybody may have told you.’

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Ganaka Vaideha replied: ‘Barku Vârshna told me that sight (kakshus) is Brahman.’

avalkya said: ‘As one who had (the benefit of a good) father, mother, and teacher might tell, so did Barku Vârshna tell you that sight is Brahman; for what is the use of a person who cannot see? But did he tell you the body and the resting-place of that Brahman?’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘He did not tell me.’

avalkya said: ‘Your Majesty, this (Brahman) stands on one leg only.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘Then tell me, Yâavalkya.’

avalkya said: ‘The eye is its body, ether its place, and one should worship it as what is true.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘What is the nature of that which is true?’

avalkya replied: ‘Your Majesty, sight itself (is that which is true); for if they say to a man who sees with his eye, “Didst thou see?” and he says, “I saw,” then it is true. Sight, O King, is the Highest Brahman. Sight does not desert him who worships that (Brahman) with such knowledge, all creatures approach him, and having become a god, he goes to the gods.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘I shall give you (for this) a thousand cows with a bull as big as an elephant.’

avalkya said: ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept a reward without having fully instructed a pupil.’

5. Yâavalkya said: ‘Let us hear what anybody may have told you.’

Ganaka Vaideha replied: ‘Gardabhîvibhîta Bhâradvâga told me that hearing (sruta) is Brahman.’

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avalkya said: ‘As one who had (the benefit of a good) father, mother, and teacher might tell, so did Gardabhîvibhîta Bhâradvâga tell you that hearing is Brahman; for what is the use of a person who cannot hear? But did he tell you the body and the resting-place of that Brahman?’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘He did not tell me.’

avalkya said: ‘Your Majesty, this (Brahman) stands on one leg only.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘Then tell me, Yâavalkya.’

avalkya said: ‘The ear is its body, ether its place, and we should worship it as what is endless.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘What is the nature of that which is endless?’

avalkya, replied: ‘Your Majesty, space (disah) itself (is that which is endless), and therefore to whatever space (quarter) he goes, he never comes to the end of it. For space is endless. Space indeed, O King, is hearing 1, and hearing indeed, O King, is the Highest Brahman. Hearing does not desert him who worships that (Brahman) with such knowledge, all creatures approach him, and having become a god, he goes to the gods.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘I shall give you (for this) a thousand cows with a bull as big as an elephant.’

avalkya said: ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept a reward without having fully instructed a pupil.’

6. Yâavalkya said: ‘Let us hear what anybody may have told you.’

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Ganaka Vaideha replied: ‘Satyakâma Gâbâla told me that mind 1 (manas) is Brahman.’

avalkya said: ‘As one who had (the benefit of a good) father, mother, and teacher might tell, so did Satyakâma Gâbâla tell you that mind is Brahman; for what is the use of a person without mind? But did he tell you the body and the resting-place of that Brahman?’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘He did not tell me.’

avalkya said: ‘Your Majesty, this (Brahman) stands on one leg only.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘Then tell me, Yâavalkya.’

avalkya said: ‘Mind itself is its body, ether its place, and we should worship it as bliss.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘What is the nature of bliss?’

avalkya replied: ‘Your Majesty, mind itself; for with the mind does a man desire a woman, and a like son is born of her, and he is bliss. Mind indeed, O King, is the Highest Brahman. Mind does not desert him who worships that (Brahman) with such knowledge, all creatures approach him, and having become a god, he goes to the gods.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘I shall give you (for this) a thousand cows with a bull as big as an elephant.’

avalkya said: ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept a reward without having fully instructed a pupil.’

7. Yâavalkya said: ‘Let us hear what anybody may have told you.’

Ganaka Vaideha replied: ‘Vidagdha Sâkalya told me that the heart (hridaya) is Brahman.’

avalkya said: ‘As one who had (the benefit

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of a good) father, mother, and teacher might tell, so did Vidagdha Sâkalya tell you that the heart is Brahman; for what is the use of a person without a heart? But did he tell you the body and the resting-place of that Brahman?’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘He did not tell me.’

avalkya said: ‘Your Majesty, this (Brahman) stands on one leg only.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘Then tell me, Yâavalkya.’

avalkya said: ‘The heart itself is its body, ether its place, and we should worship it as certainty (sthiti).’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘What is the nature of certainty?’

avalkya replied: ‘Your Majesty, the heart itself; for the heart indeed, O King, is the body of all things, the heart is the resting-place of all things, for in the heart, O King, all things rest. The heart indeed, O King, is the Highest Brahman. The heart does not desert him who worships that (Brahman) with such knowledge, all creatures approach him, and having become a god, he goes to the gods.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘I shall give you (for this) a thousand cows with a bull as big as an elephant.’

avalkya said: ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept a reward without having fully instructed a pupil.’


Footnotes

152:1 Anv-anta, formed like Sûtrânta, Siddhânta, and probably Vedânta, means subtle questions.

152:2 Roer and Poley give here Sailina; Weber also (pp. 1080 and 1081) has twice Sailina (Silinasyâpatyam).

152:3 This seems to mean that Gitvan’s explanation of Brahman is lame or imperfect, because there are four pâdas of that Brahman, and he taught one only. The other three are its body, its place, and its form of worship (praetîyam upanishad brahmanas katurthah pâdah). See also Maitr. Up. VII, p. 221.

153:1 See before, II, 4, 10; and afterwards, IV, 5, 11.

153:2 See Taitt. Up. III, 3.

154:1 Or it may mean, he is afraid of being hurt, to whatever country he goes, for the sake of a livelihood.

156:1 Dvivedaganga states, digbhâgo hi pârthivâdhishthânâvakkhinnah srotram ity ukyate, atas tayor ekatvam.

157:1 See also Taitt. Up. III, 4.

SECOND BRÂHMANA.

1. Ganaka Vaideha, descending from his throne, said: ‘I bow to you, O Yâavalkya, teach me.’

avalkya said: ‘Your Majesty, as a man who wishes to make a long journey, would furnish himself with a chariot or a ship, thus is your mind well

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furnished by these Upanishads 1. You are honourable, and wealthy, you have learnt the Vedas and been told the Upanishads. Whither then will you go when departing hence?’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘Sir, I do not know whither I shall go.’

avalkya said: ‘Then I shall tell you this, whither you will go.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘Tell it, Sir.’

2. Yâavalkya said: ‘That person who is in the right eye 2, he is called Indha, and him who is Indha they call indeed 3 Indra mysteriously, for the gods love what is mysterious, and dislike what is evident.

3. ‘Now that which in the shape of a person is in the right eye, is his wife, Virâg 4. Their meeting-place 5 is the ether within the heart, and their food the red lump within the heart. Again, their covering 6 is that which is like net-work within the heart, and the road on which they move (from sleep to waking) is the artery that rises upwards from the heart. Like a hair divided into a thousand parts, so are the veins of it, which are called Hita 7, placed

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firmly within the heart. Through these indeed that (food) flows on flowing, and he (the Taigasa) receives as it were purer food 1 than the corporeal Self (the Vaisvânara).

4. ‘His (the Taigasa’s) Eastern quarter are the prânas (breath) which go to the East;

‘His Southern quarter are the prânas which go to the South;

‘His Western quarter are the prânas which go to the West;

‘His Northern quarter are the prânas which go to the North;

‘His Upper (Zenith) quarter are the prânas which go upward;

‘His Lower (Nadir) quarter are the prânas which go downward;

‘All the quarters are all the prânas. And he (the Âtman in that state) can only be described by No 2, no! He is incomprehensible, for he cannot be comprehended; he is undecaying, for he cannot decay; he is not attached, for he does not attach himself; he is unbound, he does not suffer, he does not perish. O Ganaka, you have indeed reached fearlessness,’–thus said Yâavalkya.

Then Ganaka said: ‘May that fearlessness come to you also who teachest us fearlessness. I bow to you. Here are the Videhas, and here am I (thy slave).’


Footnotes

159:1 This refers to the preceding doctrines which had been communicated to Ganaka by other teachers, and particularly to the upâsanas of Brahman as knowledge, dear, true, endless, bliss, and certainty.

159:2 See also Maitr. Up. VII, p. 216.

159:3 The Mâdhyandinas read paroksheneva, but the commentator explains iva by eva. See also Ait. Up. I, 3, 14.

159:4 Indra is called by the commentator Vaisvânara, and his wife Virâg. This couple, in a waking state, is Visva; in sleep, Taigasa.

159:5 Samstâva, lit. the place where they sing praises together, that is, where they meet.

159:6 Prâvarana may also mean hiding-place, retreat.

159:7 Hita, a name frequently given to these nâdîs; see IV, 3, 20; Khând. Up. VI, 5, 3, comm.; Kaush. Up. IV, 20. See also Katha Up. VI, 16.

160:1 Dvivedaganga explains that food, when it is eaten, is first of all changed into the coarse food, which goes away downward, and into the subtler food. This subtler food is again divided into the middle juice that feeds the body, and the finest, which is called the red lump.

160:2 See Brih. Up. II, 3, 6; IV, 9, 26.

THIRD BRÂHMANA.

1. Yâavalkya came to Ganaka Vaideha, and he did not mean to speak with him 1. But when formerly

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[paragraph continues] Ganaka Vaideha and Yâavalkya had a disputation on the Agnihotra, Yâavalkya had granted him a boon, and he chose (for a boon) that he might be free to ask him any question he liked. Yâavalkya granted it, and thus the King was the first to ask him a question.

2. ‘Yâavalkya,’ he said, ‘what is the light of man 1?’

avalkya replied: ‘The sun, O King; for, having the sun alone for his light, man sits, moves about, does his work, and returns.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘So indeed it is, O Yâavalkya.’

3. Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘When the sun has set, O Yâavalkya, what is then the light of man?’

avalkya replied: ‘The moon indeed is his light; for, having the moon alone for his light, man sits, moves about, does his work, and returns.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘So indeed it is, O Yâavalkya.’

4. Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘When the sun has set, O Yâavalkya, and the moon has set, what is the light of man?’

avalkya replied: ‘Fire indeed is his light;

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for, having fire alone for his light, man sits, moves about, does his work, and returns.’

5. Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘When the sun has set, O Yâavalkya, and the moon has set, and the fire is gone out, what is then the light of man?’

avalkya replied: ‘Sound indeed is his light; for, having sound alone for his light, man sits, moves about, does his work, and returns. Therefore, O King, when one cannot see even one’s own hand, yet when a sound is raised, one goes towards it.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘So indeed it is, O Yâavalkya.’

6. Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘When the sun has set, O Yâavalkya, and the moon has set, and the fire is gone out, and the sound hushed, what is then the light of man?’

avalkya said: ‘The Self indeed is his light; for, having the Self alone as his light, man sits, moves about, does his work, and returns.’

7. Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘Who is that Self?’

avalkya replied: ‘He who is within the heart, surrounded by the Prânas 1 (senses), the person of light, consisting of knowledge. He, remaining the same, wanders along the two worlds 2, as if 3 thinking, as if moving. During sleep (in dream) he transcends this world and all the forms of death (all that falls under the sway of death, all that is perishable).

8. ‘On being born that person, assuming his body,

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becomes united with all evils; when he departs and dies, he leaves all evils behind.

9. ‘And there are two states for that person, the one here in this world, the other in the other world, and as a third 1 an intermediate state, the state of sleep. When in that intermediate state, he sees both those states together, the one here in this world, and the other in the other world. Now whatever his admission to the other world may be, having gained that admission, he sees both the evils and the blessings 2.

‘And when he falls asleep, then after having taken away with him the material from the whole world, destroying 3 and building it up again, he sleeps (dreams) by his own light. In that state the person is self-illuminated.

10. ‘There are no (real) chariots in that state, no horses, no roads, but he himself sends forth (creates) chariots, horses, and roads. There are no blessings there, no happiness, no joys, but he himself sends forth (creates) blessings, happiness, and joys. There

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are no tanks there, no lakes, no rivers, but he himself sends forth (creates) tanks, lakes, and rivers. He indeed is the maker.

11. ‘On this there are these verses:

‘After having subdued by sleep all that belongs to the body, he, not asleep himself, looks down upon the sleeping (senses). Having assumed light, he goes again to his place, the golden person 1, the lonely bird. (1)

12. ‘Guarding with the breath (prâna, life) the lower nest, the immortal moves away from the nest; that immortal one goes wherever he likes, the golden person, the lonely bird. (2)

13. ‘Going up and down in his dream, the god makes manifold shapes for himself, either rejoicing together with women, or laughing (with his friends), or seeing terrible sights. (3)

14. ‘People may see his playground 2 but himself no one ever sees. Therefore they say, Let no one wake a man suddenly, for it is not easy to remedy, if he does not get back (rightly to his body).”

‘Here some people (object and) say: “No, this (sleep) is the same as the place of waking, for what he sees while awake, that only he sees when asleep 3.”

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No, here (in sleep) the person is self-illuminated (as we explained before).’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘I give you, Sir, a thousand. Speak on for the sake of (my) emancipation.’

15. Yâavalkya said: ‘That (person) having enjoyed himself in that state of bliss (samprasâda, deep sleep), having moved about and seen both good and evil, hastens back again as he came, to the place from which he started (the place of sleep), to dream 1. And whatever he may have seen there, he is not followed (affected) by it, for that person is not attached to anything.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘So it is indeed, Yâavalkya.

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[paragraph continues] I give you, Sir, a thousand. Speak on for the sake of emancipation.’

16. Yâavalkya said: ‘That (person) having enjoyed himself in that sleep (dream), having moved about and seen both good and evil, hastens back again as he came, to the place from which he started, to be awake. And whatever he may have seen there, he is not followed (affected) by it, for that person is not attached to anything.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘So it is indeed, Yâavalkya. I give you, Sir, a thousand. Speak on for the sake of emancipation.’

17. Yâavalkya said: ‘That (person) having enjoyed himself in that state of waking, having moved about and seen both good and evil, hastens back again as he came, to the place from which he started, to the state of sleeping (dream).

18. ‘In fact, as a large fish moves along the two banks of a river, the right and the left, so does that person move along these two states, the state of sleeping and the state of waking.

19. ‘And as a falcon, or any other (swift) bird, after he has roamed about here in the air, becomes tired, and folding his wings is carried to his nest, so does that person hasten to that state where, when asleep, he desires no more desires, and dreams no more dreams.

20. ‘There are in his body the veins called Hitâ, which are as small as a hair divided a thousandfold, full of white, blue, yellow, green, and red 1. Now

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when, as it were, they kill him, when, as it were they overcome him, when, as it were, an elephant chases him, when, as it were, he falls into a well, he fancies, through ignorance, that danger which he (commonly) sees in waking. But when he fancies that he is, as it were, a god, or that he is, as it were, a king 1, or “I am this altogether,” that is his highest world 2.

21. ‘This indeed is his (true) form, free from desires, free from evil, free from fear 3. Now as a man, when embraced by a beloved wife, knows nothing that is without, nothing that is within, thus this person, when embraced by the intelligent (prâa) Self, knows nothing that is without, nothing that is within. This indeed is his (true) form, in which his wishes are fulfilled, in which the Self (only) is

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his wish, in which no wish is left,–free from any sorrow 1.

22. ‘Then a father is not a father, a mother not a mother, the worlds not worlds, the gods not gods, the Vedas not Vedas. Then a thief is not a thief, a murderer not a murderer 2, a Kândâla 3 not a Kândâla, a Paulkasa 4 not a Paulkasa, a Sramana 5 not a Sramana, a Tâpasa 6 not a Tâpasa. He is not followed by good, not followed by evil, for he has then overcome all the sorrows of the heart 7.

23. ‘And when (it is said that) there (in the Sushupti) he does not see, yet he is seeing, though he does not see 8. For sight is inseparable from the

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seer, because it cannot perish. But there is then no second, nothing else different from him that he could see.

24. ‘And when (it is said that) there (in the Sushupti) he does not smell, yet he is smelling, though he does not smell. For smelling is inseparable from the smeller, because it cannot perish. But there is then no second, nothing else different from him that he could smell.

25. ‘And when (it is said that) there (in the Sushupti) he does not taste, yet he is tasting, though he does not taste. For tasting is inseparable from the taster, because it cannot perish. But there is then no second, nothing else different from him that he could taste.

26. ‘And when (it is said that) there (in the Sushupti) he does not speak, yet he is speaking, though he does not speak. For speaking is inseparable from the speaker, because it cannot perish. But there is then no second, nothing else different from him that he could speak.

27. ‘And when (it is said that) there (in the Sushupti) he does not hear, yet he is hearing, though he does not hear. For hearing is inseparable from the hearer, because it cannot perish. But. there is then no second, nothing else different from him that he could hear.

28. ‘And when (it is said that) there (in the Sushupti) he does not think, yet he is thinking, though he does not think. For thinking is inseparable from the thinker, because it cannot perish.

[paragraph continues] But there is then no second, nothing else different from him that he could think.

29. ‘And when (it is said that) there (in the Sushupti) he does not touch, yet he is touching, though he does not touch. For touching is inseparable from the toucher, because it cannot perish. But there is then no second, nothing else different from him that he could think.

30. ‘And when (it is said that) there (in the Sushupti) he does not know, yet he is knowing, though he does not know. For knowing is inseparable from the knower, because it cannot perish. But there is then no second, nothing else different from him that he could know.

31. ‘When (in waking and dreaming) there is, as it were, another, then can one see the other, then can one smell the other, then can one speak to the other, then can one hear the other, then can one think the other, then can one touch the other, then can one know the other.

32. ‘An ocean 1 is that one seer, without any duality; this is the Brahma-world 2, O King.’ Thus did Yâavalkya teach him. This is his highest goal, this is his highest Success, this is his highest world, this is his highest bliss. All other creatures live on a small portion of that bliss.

33. ‘If a man is healthy, wealthy, and lord of others, surrounded by all human enjoyments, that

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is the highest blessing of men. Now a hundred of these human blessings make one blessing of the fathers who have conquered the world (of the fathers). A hundred blessings of the fathers who have conquered this world make one blessing in the Gandharva world. A hundred blessings in the Gandharva world make one blessing of the Devas by merit (work, sacrifice), who obtain their godhead by merit. A hundred blessings of the Devas by merit make one blessing of the Devas by birth, also (of) a Srotriya 1 who is without sin, and not overcome by desire. A hundred blessings of the Devas by birth make one blessing in the world of Pragâpati, also (of) a Srotriya who is without sin, and not overcome. by desire. A hundred blessings in the world of Pragâpati make one blessing in the world of Brahman, also (of) a Srotriya who is without sin, and not overcome by desire. And this is the highest blessing 2.

‘This is the Brahma-world, O king,’ thus spake Yâavalkya.

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘I give you, Sir, a thousand. Speak on for the sake of (my) emancipation.’

Then Yâavalkya was afraid lest the King, having become full of understanding, should drive him from all his positions 3.

34. And Yâavalkya said: ‘That (person), having enjoyed himself in that state of sleeping (dream),

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having moved about and seen both good and bad, hastens back again as he came, to the place from which he started, to the state of waking 1.

35. ‘Now as a heavy-laden carriage moves along groaning, thus does this corporeal Self, mounted by the intelligent Self, move along groaning, when a man is thus going to expire 2.

36. ‘And when (the body) grows weak through old age, or becomes weak through illness, at that time that person, after separating himself from his members, as an Amra (mango), or Udumbara (fig), or Pippala-fruit is separated from the stalk, hastens back again as be came, to the place from which he started, to (new) life.

37. ‘And as policemen, magistrates, equerries, and governors wait for a king who is coming back, with food and drink, saying, “He comes back, he approaches,” thus do all the elements wait on him who knows this, saying, “That Brahman comes, that Brahman approaches.”

38. ‘And as policemen, magistrates, equerries, and governors gather round a king who is departing, thus do all the senses (prânas) gather round the Self at the time of death, when a man is thus going to expire.’


Footnotes

161:1 The introduction to this Brâhmana has a very peculiar interest, as showing the close coherence of the different portions which together form the historical groundwork of the Upanishads. Ganaka Vaideha and Yâavalkya are leading characters in the Brihadâranyaka-upanishad, and whenever they meet they seem to converse quite freely, though each retains his own character, and Yâavalkya honours Ganaka as king quite as much as Ganaka honours Yâavalkya as a Brâhmana. Now in our chapter we read that Yâavalkya did not wish to enter on a discussion, but that Ganaka was the first to address him (pûrvam paprakkha). This was evidently considered not quite correct, and an explanation is given, that Ganaka took this liberty because on a former occasion Yâavalkya had granted him permission to address questions to him, whenever he liked. It might be objected that such an explanation looks very much like an after-thought, and we find indeed that in India itself some of the later commentators tried to avoid the difficulty by dividing the words sa mene na vadishya iti, into sam enena vadishya iti, so that we should have to translate, ‘Yâavalkya came to Ganaka intending to speak with him.’ (See Dvivedaganga’s Comm. p. 1141.) This is, no doubt, a very ingenious conjecture, which might well rouse the envy of European scholars. But it is no more. The accents decide nothing, because they are changed by different writers, according to their different views of what the Pada text ought to be. What made me prefer the reading which is supported by Sankara and Dvivedaganga, though the latter alludes to the other padakkheda, is that the tmesis, sam enena vadishye, does not occur again, while sa mene is a common phrase. But the most interesting point, as I remarked before, is that this former disputation between Ganaka and Yâavalkya and the permission granted to the King to ask any question he liked, is not a mere invention to account for the apparent rudeness by which Yâavalkya is forced to enter on a discussion against his will, but actually occurs in a former chapter. In Satap. Br. XI, 6, 2, 10, we read: tasmai ha Yâavalkyo varam dadau; sa hovâka, kâmaprasna p. 162 eva me tvayi Yâavalkyâsad iti, tato brahmâ Ganaka âsa. This would show that Ganaka was considered almost like a Brâhmana, or at all events enjoyed certain privileges which were supposed to belong to the first caste only. See, for a different view, Deussen, Vedânta, p. 203; Regnaud (Matériaux pour servir à l’histoire de la philosophie de l’Inde), Errata; and Sacred Books of the East, vol. i, p. lxxiii.

162:1 Read kimgyotir as a Bahuvrîhi. Purusha is difficult to translate. It means man, but also the true essence of man, the soul, as we should say, or something more abstract still, the person, as I generally translate it, though a person beyond the Ego.

163:1 Sâmîpyalakshanâ saptamî, Dvivedaganga. See Brih. Up. IV, 4, 22.

163:2 In this world, while awake or dreaming; in the other world, while in deep sleep.

163:3 The world thinks that he thinks, but in reality he does not, he only witnesses the acts of buddhi, or thought.

164:1 There are really two sthânas or states only; the place where they meet, like the place where two villages meet, belongs to both, but it may be distinguished as a third. Dvivedaganga (p. 1141) uses a curious argument in support of the existence of another world. In early childhood, he says, our dreams consist of the impressions of a former world, later on they are filled with the impressions of our senses, and in old age they contain visions of a world to come.

164:2 By works, by knowledge, and by remembrance of former things; see Brih. Up. IV, 4, 2.

164:3 Dividing and separating the material, i.e. the impressions received from this world. The commentator explains mâtrâ as a portion of the impressions which are taken away into sleep. ‘Destroying’ he refers to the body, which in sleep becomes senseless, and ‘building up’ to the imaginations of dreams.

165:1 The Mâdhyandinas read paurusha, as an adjective to ekahamsa, but Dvivedaganga explains paurusha as a synonym of purusha, which is the reading of the Kânvas.

165:2 Cf. Susruta III, 7, 1.

165:3 I have translated this according to the commentator, who says: ‘Therefore the Self is self-illuminated during sleep. But others say the state of waking is indeed the same for him as sleep; there is no other intermediate place, different from this and from the other world…. And if sleep is the same as the state of waking, then is this Self not separate, not cause and effect, but mixed with them, and the Self therefore not self-illuminated. What he means p. 166 is that others, in order to disprove the self-illumination, say that this sleep is the same as the state of waking, giving as their reason that we see in sleep or in dreams exactly what we see in waking. But this is wrong, because the senses have stopped, and only when the senses have stopped does one see dreams. Therefore there is no necessity for admitting another light in sleep, but only the light inherent in the Self. This has been proved by all that went before.’ Dr. Roer takes the same view in his translation, but Deussen (Vedânta, p. 205) takes an independent view, and translates: I Therefore it is said: It (sleep) is to him a place of waking only, for what he sees waking, the same he sees in sleep. Thus this spirit serves there for his own light.’ Though the interpretations of Sankara and Dvivedaganga sound artificial, still Dr. Deussen’s version does not remove all difficulties. If the purusha saw in sleep no more than what he had seen before in waking, then the whole argument in favour of the independent action, or the independent light of the purusha, would go; anyhow it would be no argument on Yâavalkya’s side. See also note to paragraph 9, before.

166:1 The Mâdhyandinas speak only of his return from svapnânta to buddhânta, from sleep to waking, instead of his going from sainprasâda (deep sleep) to svapnâ (dream), from svapnâ to buddhânta, and from buddhânta again to svapnânta, as the Kânvas have it. In § 18 the Kânvas also mention svapnânta and buddhânta only, but the next paragraph refers to sushupti.

167:1 Dvivedaganga explains that if phlegm predominates, qualified by wind and bile, the juice in the veins is white; if wind predominates, qualified by phlegm and bile, it is blue; if bile predominates, qualified by wind and phlegm, it is yellow; if wind and phlegm p. 168 predominate, with little bile only, it is green; and if the three elements are equal, it is red. See also Ânandagiri’s gloss, where Susruta is quoted. Why this should be inserted here, is not quite clear, except that in sleep the purusha is supposed to, move about in the veins.

168:1 Here, again, the commentator seems to be right, but his interpretation does violence to the context. The dangers which a man sees in his sleep are represented as mere imaginations, so is his idea of being of god or a king, while the idea that he is all this (aham evedam sarvah, i.e. idam sarvam, see Sankara, p. 873, l. 11) is represented as the highest and real state. But it is impossible to begin a new sentence with aham evedam sarvam, and though it is true that all the preceding fancies are qualified by iva, I prefer to take deva and râgan as steps leading to the sarvâtmatva.

168:2 The Mâdhyandinas repeat here the sentence from yatra supto to pasyati, from the end of § 19.

168:3 The Kânva text reads atikkhandâ apahatapâpmâ. Sankara explains atikkhandâ by atikkhandam, and excuses it as svâdhyâyadharmahthah. The Mâdhyandinas read atikkhando, but place the whole sentence where the Kânvas put âptakâmam &c., at the end of § 21.

169:1 The Kânvas read sokântaram, the Mâdhyandinas asokântaram, but the commentators arrive at the same result, namely, that it means sokasûnyam, free from grief Sankara says: sokântaram sokakkhidram sokasûnyam ityetak, khokamadhyaman iti vi; sarvathâpy asokam. Dvivedaganga says: na vidyate soko ‘ntare madhye yasya tad asokântaram (ra, Weber) sokasûnyam.

169:2 Bhrûnahan, varishthabrabmahantâ.

169:3 The son of a Sûdra father and a Brâhmana mother.

169:4 The son of a Sûdra father and a Kshatriya mother.

169:5 A mendicant.

169:6 A Vânaprastha, who performs penances.

169:7 I have translated as if the text were ananvâgatah punyena ananvâgatah pâpena. We find anvâgata used in a similar way in §§ 15, 16, &c. But the Kânvas read ananvâgatam punyena ananvâgatam pâpena, and Sankara explains the neuter by referring it to rûpam (rûpaparatvân napumsakalingam). The Mâdhyandinas, if we may trust Weber’s edition, read ananvâgatah punyenânvâgatah pâpena. The second anvâgatah may be a mere misprint, but Dvivedaganga seems to have read ananvâgatam, like the Kânvas, for he says: ananvâgatam iti rûpavishayo napumsakanirdesah.

169:8 This is the old Upanishad argument that the true sense is the Self, and not the eye. Although therefore in the state of profound sleep, where the eye and the other senses rest, it might be said that the purusha does not see, yet he is a seer all the time, though he does not see with the eye. The seer cannot lose his character p. 170 of seeing, as little as the fire can lose its character of burning, so long as it is fire. The Self sees by its own light, like the sun, even where there is no second, no object but the Self, that could be seen.

170:1 Salila is explained as salilavat, like the ocean, the seer being one like the ocean, which is one only. Dr. Deussen takes salila as a locative, and translates it ‘In dem Gewoge,’ referring to Svetâsvatara-upanishad VI, 15.

170:2 Or this seer is the Brahma-world, dwells in Brahman, or is Brahman.

172:1 An accomplished student of the Veda.

172:2 See Taitt. Up. II, 8, p. 59; Khând. Up. VIII, 2, 1-10; Kaush. Up. I, 3-5; Regnaud, II, p. 33 seq.

172:3 Sankara explains that Yâavalkya was not afraid that his own knowledge might prove imperfect, but that the king, having the right to ask him any question he liked, might get all his knowledge from him.

FOURTH BRÂHMANA.

1. Yâavalkya continued: ‘Now when that Self, having sunk into weakness 3, sinks, as it were, into

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unconsciousness, then gather those senses (prânas) around him, and he, taking with him those elements of light, descends into the heart When that person in the eye 1 turns away, then he ceases to know any forms.

2. ‘”He has become one,” they say, “he does not see 2.” “He has become one,” they say, “he does not smell.” “He has become one,” they say, “he does not taste.” “He has become one,” they say, “he does not speak.” “He has become one,” they say, “he does not hear.” “He has become one,” they say, “he does not think.” “He has become one,” they say, “he does not touch.” “He has become one,” they say, “he does not know.” The point of his heart 3 becomes lighted up, and by that light the Self departs, either through the eye 4, or through the skull 5, or through other places of the body. And when he thus departs, life (the chief prâna) departs after him, and when life thus departs, all the other

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vital spirits (prânas) depart after it. He is conscious, and being conscious he follows 1 and departs.

‘Then both his knowledge and his work take hold of him, and his acquaintance with former things 2.’

3. ‘And as a caterpillar, after having reached the end of a blade of grass, and after having made another approach (to another blade) 3, draws itself together towards it, thus does this Self, after having thrown off this body 4 and dispelled all ignorance, and after making another approach (to another body), draw himself together towards it.

4. And as a goldsmith, taking a piece of gold, turns it into another, newer and more beautiful shape, so does this Self, after having thrown off this body

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and dispelled all ignorance, make unto himself another, newer and more beautiful shape, whether it be like the Fathers, or like the Gandharvas, or like the Devas, or like Pragâpati, or like Brahman, or like other beings.

5. ‘That Self is indeed Brahman, consisting of knowledge, mind, life, sight, hearing, earth, water, wind, ether, light and no light, desire and no desire, anger and no anger, right or wrong, and all things. Now as a man is like this or like that 1, according as he acts and according as he behaves, so will he be:–a man of good acts will become good, a man of bad acts, bad. He becomes pure by pure deeds, bad by bad deeds.

‘And here they say that a person consists of desires. And as is his desire, so is his will; and as is his will, so is his deed; and whatever deed he does, that he will reap.

6. ‘And here there is this verse: “To whatever object a man’s own mind is attached, to that he goes strenuously together with his deed; and having obtained the end (the last results) of whatever deed he does here on earth, he returns again from that world (which is the temporary reward of his deed) to this world of action.”

‘So much for the man who desires. But as to the man who does not desire, who, not desiring, freed from desires, is satisfied in his desires, or desires the Self only, his vital spirits do not depart elsewhere,–being Brahman, he goes to Brahman.

7. ‘On this there is this verse: “When all desires

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which once entered his heart are undone, then does the mortal become immortal, then he obtains Brahman.

‘And as the slough of a snake lies on an ant-hill, dead and cast away, thus lies this body; but that disembodied immortal spirit (prâna, life) is Brahman only, is only light.’

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘Sir, I give you a thousand.’

8 1. ‘On this there are these verses:

‘The small, old path stretching far away 2 has been found by me. On it sages who know Brahman move on to the Svarga-loka (heaven), and thence higher on, as entirely free 3.

9. ‘On that path they say that there is white, or blue, or yellow, or green, or red 4; that path was found by Brahman, and on it goes whoever knows Brahman, and who has done good, and obtained splendour.

10. ‘All who worship what is not knowledge (avidyâ) enter into blind darkness: those who delight in knowledge, enter, as it were, into greater darkness 5.

11. ‘There are 6 indeed those unblessed worlds,

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covered with blind darkness. Men who are ignorant and not enlightened go after death to those worlds.

12. ‘If a man understands the Self, saying, “I am He,” what could he wish or desire that he should pine after the body 1.

13. ‘Whoever has found and understood the Self that has entered into this patched-together hiding-place 2, he indeed is the creator, for he is the maker of everything, his is the world, and he is the world itself 3.

14. ‘While we are here, we may know this; if not, I am ignorant 4, and there is great destruction. Those who know it, become immortal, but others suffer pain indeed.

15. ‘If a man clearly beholds this Self as God, and as the lord of all that is and will be, then he is no more afraid.

16. ‘He behind whom the year revolves with the days, him the gods worship as the light of lights, as immortal time.

17. ‘He in whom the five beings 5 and the ether rest, him alone I believe to be the Self,–I who

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know, believe him to be Brahman; I who am immortal, believe him to be immortal.

18. ‘They who know the life of life, the eye of the eye, the ear of the ear, the mind of the mind, they have comprehended the ancient, primeval Brahman 1.

19. ‘By the mind alone it is to be perceived 2, there is in it no diversity. He who perceives therein any diversity, goes from death to death.

20. ‘This eternal being that can never be proved, is to be perceived in one way only; it is spotless, beyond the ether, the unborn Self, great and eternal.

21. ‘Let a wise Brâhmana, after he has discovered him, practise wisdom 3. Let him not seek after many words, for that is mere weariness of the tongue.

22. ‘And he is that great unborn Self, who consists of knowledge, is surrounded by the Prânas, the ether within the heart 4. In it there reposes the ruler of all, the lord of all, the king of all. He does not become greater by good works, nor smaller by evil works. He is the lord of all, the king of all things, the protector of all things. He is a bank 5 and a boundary, so that these worlds may not be confounded. Brâhmanas seek to know him by the study of the Veda, by sacrifice, by gifts, by penance, by fasting, and he who knows him, becomes a Muni. Wishing for that world (for Brahman) only, mendicants leave their homes.

‘Knowing this, the people of old did not wish for offspring. What shall we do with offspring, they said,

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we who have this Self and this world (of Brahman) 1? And they, having risen above the desire for sons, wealth, and new worlds, wander about as mendicants. For desire for sons is desire for wealth, and desire for wealth is desire for worlds. Both these are indeed desires only. He, the Self, is to be described by No, no 2! He is incomprehensible, for he cannot be comprehended; he is imperishable, for he cannot perish; he is unattached, for he does not attach himself; unfettered, he does not suffer, he does not fail. Him (who knows), these two do not overcome, whether he says that for some reason he has done evil, or for some reason he has done good–he overcomes both, and neither what he has done, nor what he has omitted to do, burns (affects) him.

23. ‘This has been told by a verse (Rik): “This eternal greatness of the Brâhmana does not grow larger by work, nor does it grow smaller. Let man try to find (know) its trace, for having found (known) it, he is not sullied by any evil deed.”

‘He therefore that knows it, after having become quiet, subdued, satisfied, patient, and collected 3, sees self in Self, sees all as Self. Evil does not overcome him, he overcomes all evil. Evil does not burn him, he burns all evil. Free from evil, free from spots, free from doubt, he becomes a (true) Brâhmana; this is the Brahma-world, O King,’–thus spoke Yâavalkya.

Ganaka Vaideha said: ‘Sir, I give you the Videhas, and also myself, to be together your slaves.’

24. This 4 indeed is the great, the unborn Self, the

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strong 1, the giver of wealth. He who knows this obtains wealth.

25. This great, unborn Self, undecaying, undying, immortal, fearless, is indeed Brahman. Fearless is Brahman, and he who knows this becomes verily the fearless Brahman.


Footnotes

173:1 See § 17, before.

173:2 Sankara seems to take ukkhvâsî as a noun. He writes: yatraitad bhavati; etad iti kriyâviseshanam ûrdhvôkhhvâsî yatrordhvokkhvâsitvam asya bhavatîtyarthah.

173:3 In the Kaush. Up. III, 3, we read yatraitat purusha ârto p. 174 marishyan âbâlyam etya sammohati. Here âbâlyam should certainly be âbălyam, as in the commentary; but should it not be ăbălyam, as here. See also Brih. Up. III, 5, 1, note.

174:1 Kâkshusha purusha is explained as that portion of the sun which is in the eye, while it is active, but which, at the time of death, returns to the sun.

174:2 Ekîbhavati is probably a familiar expression for dying, but it is here explained by Sankara, and probably was so intended, as meaning that the organs of the body have become one with the Self (lingâtman). The same thoughts are found in the Kaush. Up. III, 3, prâna ekadhâ bhavati.

174:3 The point where the nâdîs or veins go out from the heart.

174:4 When his knowledge and deeds qualify him to proceed to the sun. Sankara.

174:5 When his knowledge and deeds qualify him to proceed to the Brahma-world.

175:1 This is an obscure passage, and the different text of the Mâdhyandinas shows that the obscurity was felt at an early time. The Mâdhyandinas read: Samgñânam anvavakrâmati sa esha ah saviâno bhavati. This would mean, ‘Consciousness departs after. He the knowing (Self) is self-conscious.’ The Kânvas read: Saviâno bhavati, saviânam evânvavakrâmati. Roer translates: ‘It is endowed with knowledge, endowed with knowledge it departs;’ and he explains, with Sankara, that the knowledge here intended is such knowledge as one has in a dream, a knowledge of impressions referring to their respective objects, a knowledge which is the effect of actions, and not inherent in the self. Deussen translates: ‘Sie (die Seele) ist von Erkenntnissart, und was von Erkenntnissart ist, ziehet ihr nach.’ The Persian translator evidently thought that self-consciousness was implied, for he writes: ‘Cum quovis corpore addictionem sumat . . . . in illo corpore aham est, id est, ego sum.’

175:2 This acquaintance with former things is necessary to explain the peculiar talents or deficiencies which we observe in children. The three words vidyâ, karman, and pûrvapragñâ often go together (see Sankara on Brih. Up. IV, 3, 9). Deussen’s conjecture, apûrvapraâ, is not called for.

175:3 See Brih. Up. IV, 3, 9, a passage which shows how difficult it would be always to translate the same Sanskrit words by the same words in English; see also Brahmopanishad, p. 245.

175:4 See Brih. Up. IV, 3, 9, and IV, 3, 13

176:1 The iti after adomaya is not clear to me, but it is quite clear that a new sentence begins with tadyadetat, which Regnaud, II, p. 101 and p. 139, has not observed.

177:1 This may be independent matter, or may be placed again into the mouth of Yâgñavalkya.

177:2 Instead of vitatah, which perhaps seemed to be in contradiction with anu there is a Mâdhyandina reading vitara, probably intended originally to mean leading across. The other adjective mâmsprishta I cannot explain. Sankara explains it by mâm sprishtah, mayâ labdhah.

177:3 That this is the true meaning, is indicated by the various readings of the Mâdhyandinas, tena dhîrâ apiyanti brahmavida utkramya svargam lokam ito vimuktâh. The road is not to lead to Svarga only, but beyond.

177:4 See the colours of the veins as given before, IV, 3, 20.

177:5 See Vâg. Up. 9. Sankara in our place explains avidyâ by works, and vidyâ by the Veda, excepting the Upanishads.

177:6 See Vâg. Up. 3; Katha Up. I. 3.

178:1 That he should be willing to suffer once more the pains inherent in the body. The Mâdhyandinas read sarîram anu samkaret, instead of sañgvaret.

178:2 The body is meant, and is called deha from the root dih, to knead together. Roer gives samdehye gahane, which Sankara explains by samdehe. Poley has samdeghe, which is the right Kânva reading. The Mâdhyandinas read samdehe. Gahane might be taken as an adjective also, referring to samdehe.

178:3 Sankara takes loka, world, for âtmâ, self.

178:4 I have followed Sankara in translating avedih by ignorant, but the text seems corrupt.

178:5 The five ganas, i.e. the Gandharvas, Pitris, Devas, Asuras, and Rakshas; or the four castes with the Nishâdas; or breath, eye, ear, food, and mind.

179:1 See Talavak. Up. I, 2.

179:2 See Katha Up. IV, 10-11.

179:3 Let him practise abstinence, patience, &c., which are the means of knowledge.

179:4 See Brih. Up. IV, 3, 7.

179:5 See Khând. Up. VIII, 4.

180:1 Cf. Brih. Up. III, 5, 1.

180:2 See Brih. Up. III, 9, 26; IV, 2, 4.

180:3 See Deussen, Vedânta, p. 85.

180:4 As described in the dialogue between Ganaka and Yâavalkya.

181:1 Annâda is here explained as ‘dwelling in all beings, and eating all food which they eat.’

FIFTH BRÂHMANA 2.

1. Yâavalkya had two wives, Maitreyî and Kâtyâyanî. Of these Maitreyî was conversant with Brahman, but Kâtyâyanî possessed such knowledge only as women possess. And Yâavalkya, when he wished to get ready for another state of life (when he wished to give up the state of a householder, and retire into the forest),

2. Said, ‘Maitreyî, verily I am going away from this my house (into the forest). Forsooth, let me make a settlement between thee and that Kâtyâyanî.’

3. Maitreyî said: ‘My Lord, if this whole earth, full of wealth, belonged to me, tell me, should I be immortal by it, or no?’

‘No,’ replied Yâavalkya, ‘like the life of rich people will be thy life. But there is no hope of immortality by wealth.’

4. And Maitreyî said: ‘What should I do with that by which I do not become immortal? What my Lord knoweth 3 (of immortality), tell that clearly to me.’

5. Yâavalkya replied: ‘Thou who art truly dear to me, thou hast increased what is dear (to me in

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thee) 1. Therefore, if you like, Lady, I will explain it to thee, and mark well what I say.’

6. And he said: ‘Verily, a husband is not dear, that you may love the husband; but that you may love the Self, therefore a husband is dear.

‘Verily, a wife is not dear, that you may love the wife; but that you may love the Self, therefore a wife is dear.

‘Verily, sons are not dear, that you may love the sons; but that you may love the Self, therefore sons are dear.

‘Verily, wealth is not dear, that you may love wealth; but that you may love the Self, therefore wealth is dear.

‘Verily, cattle 2 are not dear, that you may love cattle; but that you may love the Self, therefore cattle are dear.

‘Verily, the Brahman-class is not dear, that you may love the Brahman-class; but that you may love the Self, therefore the Brahman-class is dear.

‘Verily, the Kshatra-class is not dear, that you may love the Kshatra-class; but that you may love the Self, therefore the Kshatra-class is dear.

‘Verily, the worlds are not dear, that you may love the worlds; but that you may love the Self, therefore the worlds are dear.

‘Verily, the Devas are not dear, that you may love the Devas; but that you may love the Self, therefore the Devas are dear.

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‘Verily, the Vedas are not dear, that you may love the Vedas; but that you may love the Self, therefore the Vedas are dear.

‘Verily, creatures are not dear, that you may love the creatures; but that you may love the Self, therefore are creatures dear.

‘Verily, everything is not dear, that you may love everything; but that you may love the Self, therefore everything is dear.

‘Verily, the Self is to be seen, to be heard, to be perceived, to be marked, O Maitreyî! When the Self has been seen, heard, perceived, and known, then all this is known!

7. ‘Whosoever looks for the Brahman-class elsewhere than in the Self, was abandoned by the Brahman-class. Whosoever looks for the Kshatra-class elsewhere than in the Self, was abandoned by the Kshatra-class. Whosoever looks for the worlds elsewhere than in the Self, was abandoned by the worlds. Whosoever looks for the Devas elsewhere than in the Self, was abandoned by the Devas. Whosoever looks for the Vedas elsewhere than in the Self, was abandoned by the Vedas. Whosoever looks for the creatures elsewhere than in the Self, was abandoned by the creatures. Whosoever looks for anything elsewhere than in the Self, was abandoned by anything.

‘This Brahman-class, this Kshatra-class, these worlds, these Devas, these Vedas, all these beings, this everything, all is that Self.

8. ‘Now as the sounds of a drum, when beaten, cannot be seized externally (by themselves), but the sound is seized, when the drum is seized, or the beater of the drum;

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9. ‘And as the sounds of a conch-shell, when blown, cannot be seized externally (by themselves), but the sound is seized, when the shell is seized, or the blower of the shell;

10. ‘And as the sounds of a lute, when played, cannot be seized externally (by themselves), but the sound is seized, when the lute is seized, or the player of the lute;

11. ‘As clouds of smoke proceed by themselves out of lighted fire kindled with damp fuel, thus verily, O Maitreyî, has been breathed forth from this great Being what we have as Rig-veda, Yagur-veda, Sâma-veda, Atharvângirasas, Itihâsa, Purâna, Vidyâ, the Upanishads, Slokas, Sûtras, Anuvyâkhyânas, Vyâkhyânas, what is sacrificed, what is poured out, food, drink 1, this world and the other world, and all creatures. From him alone all these were breathed forth.

12. ‘As all waters find their centre in the sea, all touches in the skin, all tastes in the tongue, all smells in the nose, all colours in the eye, all sounds in the ear, all percepts in the mind, all- knowledge in the heart, all actions in the hands, all movements in the feet, and all the Vedas in speech,–

13. ‘As a mass of salt has neither inside nor outside, but is altogether a mass of taste, thus indeed has that Self neither inside nor outside, but is altogether a mass of knowledge; and having risen from out these elements, vanishes again in them. When he has departed, there is no more knowledge (name), I say, O Maitreyî,’–thus spoke Yâavalkya.

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14. Then Maitreyî said: ‘Here, Sir, thou hast landed me in utter bewilderment. Indeed, I do not understand him.’

But he replied: ‘O Maitreyî, I say nothing that is bewildering. Verily, beloved, that Self is imperishable, and of an indestructible nature.

15. ‘For when there is as it were duality, then one sees the other, one smells the other, one tastes the other, one salutes the other, one hears the other, one perceives the other, one touches the other, one knows the other; but when the Self only is all this, how should he see another, how should he smell another, how should he taste another, how should he salute another, how should he hear another, how should he touch another, how should he know another? How should he know Him by whom he knows all this? That Self is to be described by No, no 1! He is incomprehensible, for he cannot be comprehended; he is imperishable, for he cannot perish; he is unattached, for he does not attach himself; unfettered, he does not suffer, he does not fail. How, O beloved, should he know the Knower? Thus, O Maitreyî, thou hast been instructed. Thus far goes immortality.’ Having said so, Yâavalkya went away (into the forest).


Footnotes

181:2 See before, II, 4.

181:3 The Kânva text has vettha instead of veda.

182:1 The Kânva text has avridhat, which Sankara explains by vardhitavatî nirdhâritavaty asi. The Mâdhyandinas read avritat, which the commentator explains by avartayat, vartitavaty asi.

182:2 Though this is added here, it is not included in the summing up in § 6.

184:1 Explained by annadânanimittam and peyadânanimittam dharmagâtam. See before, IV, 1, 2.

SIXTH BRÂHMANA.

1. Now follows the stem 2:

1. (We) from Pautimâshya,
2. Pautimâshya, from Gaupavana,
3. Gaupavana from Pautimâshya,

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4. Pautimâshya from Gaupavana,
5. Gaupavana from Kausika,
6. Kausika from Kaundinya,
7. Kaundinya from Sândilya,
8. Sândilya from Kausika and Gautama,
9. Gautama

2. from Âgnivesya,

10. Âgnivesya from Gârgya,
11. Gârgya from Gârgya,
12. Gârgya from Gautama,
13. Gautama from Saitava,
14. Saitava from Pârâsaryâyana,
15. Pârâsaryâyana from Gârgyâyana,
16. Gârgyâyana from Uddâlakâyana,
17. Uddâlakâyana from Gâbâlâyana,
18. Gâbâlâyana from Mâdhyandânayana,
19. Mâdhyandânayana from Saukarâyana,
20. Saukarâyana from Kâshâyana,
21. Kâshâyana from Sâyakâyana,
22. Sâyakâyana from Kausikâyani 1,
23. Kausikâyani

3. from Ghritakausika,

24. Ghritakausika from Pârâsaryâyana,

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25. Pârâsaryâyana from Pârâsarya,
26. Pârâsarya from Gâtukarnya,
27. Gâtukarnya from Âsurâyana and Yâska 1,
28. Âsurâyana from Travani,
29. Travani from Aupagandhani,
30. Aupagandhani from Âsuri,
31. Âsuri from Bhâradvâga,
32. Bhâradvâga from Âtreya,
33. Âtreya from Mânti,
34. Mânti from Gautama,
35. Gautama from Gautama,
36. Gautama from Vâtsya,
37. Vâtsya from Sândilya,
38. Sândilya from Kaisorya Kâpya,
39. Kaisorya Kâpya from Kumârahârita,
40. Kumârahârita from Gâlava,
41. Gâlava from Vidarbhî-kaundinya,
42. Vidarbhî-kaundinya from Vatsanapât Bâbhrava,
43. Vatsanapât Bâbhrava from Pathi Saubhara,
44. Pathi Saubhara from Ayâsya Ângirasa,
45. Ayâsya Ângirasa from Âbhûti Tvâshtra,
46. Âbhûti Tvâshtra from Visvarûpa Tvâshtra,
47. Visvarûpa Tvâshtra from Asvinau,
48. Asvinau from Dadhyak Âtharvana,
49. Dadhyak Âtharvana from Atharvan Daiva,
50. Atharvan Daiva from Mrityu Prâdhvamsana,
51. Mrityu Prâdhvamsana from Prâdhvamsana,
52. Prâdhvamsana from Ekarshi,
53. Ekarshi from Viprakitti 2,
54. Viprakitti from Vyashti,

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55. Vyashti from Sanâru,
56. Sanâru from Sanâtana,
57. Sanâtana from Sanaga,
58. Sanaga from Parameshthin,
59. Parameshthin from Brahman,
60. Brahman is Svayambhu, self-existent.
Adoration to Brahman.


Footnotes

185:1 See Brih. Up. III, 9, 26; IV, 2, 4; IV, 4, 22.

185:2 The line of teachers and pupils by whom the Yâavalkya-kânda p. 186 was handed down. From 1-10 the Vamsa agrees with the Vamsa at the end of II, 6.

The Mâdhyandina text begins with vayam, we, and proceeds to 1. Saurpanâyya, 2. Gautama, 3. Vâtsya, 4. Pârasarya, &c., as in the Madhukânda, p. 118, except in 10, where it gives Gaivantâyana for Âtreya. Then after 12. Kaundinyâyana, it gives 13. 14. the two Kaundinyas, 15. the Aurnavâbhas, 16. Kaundinya, 17. Kaundinya, 18. Kaundinya and Âgnivesya, 19. Saitava, 20. Pârâsarya, 2 1. Gâtukarnya, 22. Bhâradvâga, 2 3. Bhâradvâga, Âsurâyana, and Gautama, 24. Bhâradvâga, 25. Valâkâkausika, 26. Kâshâyana, 27. Saukarâyana, 28. Traivani, 29. Aupagandhani, 30. Sâyakâyana, p. Kausikâyani, &c., as in the Kânva text, from No. 22 to Brahman.

186:1 From here the Vamsa agrees again with that given at the end of II, 6.

187:1 The Mâdhyandina text has, 1. Bhâradvâga, 2. Bhâradvâga, Âsurâyana, and Yâska.

187:2 Vipragitti, Mâdhyandina text.

FIFTH ADHYÂYA.

FIRST BRÂHMANA 1.

1. That (the invisible Brahman) is full, this (the visible Brahman) is full} 2. This full (visible Brahman) proceeds from that full (invisible Brahman). On grasping the fulness of this full (visible Brahman) there is left that full (invisible Brahman) 3.

Om (is) ether, (is) Brahman 4. ‘There is the old ether (the invisible), and the (visible) ether of the atmosphere,’ thus said Kauravyâyanîputra. This (the Om) is the Veda (the means of knowledge), thus the Brâhmanas know. One knows through it all that has to be known.


Footnotes

189:1 This is called a Khila, or supplementary chapter, treating of various auxiliary means of arriving at a knowledge of Brahman.

189:2 Full and filling, infinite.

189:3 On perceiving the true nature of the visible world., there remains, i.e. there is perceived at once, as underlying it, or as being it, the invisible world or Brahman. This and the following paragraph are called Mantras.

189:4 This is explained by Sankara as meaning, Brahman is Kha, the ether, and called Om, i.e. Om and Kha are predicates of Brahman.

SECOND BRÂHMANA.

1. The threefold descendants of Pragâpati, gods, men, and Asuras (evil spirits), dwelt as; Brahmakârins (students) with their father Pragâpati. Having finished their studentship the gods said: ‘Tell us (something), Sir.’ He told them the syllable Da. Then he said: ‘Did you understand?’ They said: ‘We did understand. You told us “Dâmyata,” Be subdued.’ ‘Yes,’ he said, ‘you have understood.’

2. Then the men said to him: ‘Tell us something,

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[paragraph continues] Sir.’ He told them the same syllable Da. Then he said: ‘Did you understand?’ They said: ‘We did understand. You told us, “Datta,” Give.’ ‘Yes,’ he said, ‘you have understood.’

3. Then the Asuras said to him: ‘Tell us something, Sir.’ He told them the same syllable Da. Then he said: ‘Did you understand?’ They said: ‘We did understand. You told us, “Dayadham,” Be merciful.’ ‘Yes,’ he said, ‘you have understood.’

The divine voice of thunder repeats the same, Da Da Da, that is, Be subdued, Give, Be merciful. Therefore let that triad be taught, Subduing, Giving, and Mercy.

THIRD BRÂHMANA.

1. Pragâpati is the heart, is this Brahman, is all this. The heart, hridaya, consists of three syllables. One syllable is hri, and to him who knows this, his own people and others bring offerings 1. One syllable is da, and to him who knows this, his own people and others bring gifts. One syllable is yam, and he who knows this, goes to heaven (svarga) as his world.


Footnotes

190:1 Sankara explains that with regard to the heart, i.e. buddhi, the senses are ‘its own people,’ and the objects of the senses ‘the others.’

FOURTH BRÂHMANA.

1. This (heart) indeed is even that, it was indeed the true 2 (Brahman). And whosoever knows this great glorious first-born as the true Brahman, he conquers these worlds, and conquered likewise may that (enemy) be 3! yes, whosoever knows this great

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glorious first-born as the true Brahman; for Brahman is the true.


Footnotes

190:2 The true, not the truth; the truly existing. The commentator explains it as it was explained in II, 3, 1, as sat and tya, containing both sides of the Brahman.

190:3 An elliptical expression, as explained by the commentator: May that one (his enemy) be conquered, just as that one was p. 191 conquered by Brahman. If he conquers the world, how much more his enemy 1′ It would be better, however, if we could take gita in the sense of vasîkrita or dânta, because we could then go on with ya evam veda.

FIFTH BRÂHMANA.

1. In the beginning this (world) was water. Water produced the true 1, and the true is ‘Brahman. Brahman produced Pragâpati 2, Pragâpati the Devas (gods). The Devas adore the true (satyam) alone. This satyam consists of three syllables. One syllable is sa, another t(i), the third 3 yam. The first and last syllables are true, in the middle there is the untrue 4. This untrue is on both sides enclosed by the true, and thus the true preponderates. The untrue does not hurt him who knows this.

2. Now what is the true, that is the Âditya (the sun), the person that dwells in yonder orb, and the person in the right eye. These two rest on each other, the former resting with his rays in the latter, the latter with his prânas (senses) in the former. When the latter is on the point of departing this life, he sees that orb as white only, and those rays (of the sun) do not return to him.

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3. Now of the person in that (solar) orb Bhûh is the head, for the head is one, and that syllable is one; Bhuvah the two arms, for the arms are two, and these syllables are two; Svar the foot, for the feet are two, and these syllables are two 1. Its secret name is Ahar (day), and he who knows this destroys (hanti) evil and leaves (gahâti) it.

4. Of the person in the right eye Bhûh is the head, for the head is one, and that syllable is one; Bhuvah the two arms, for the arms are two, and these syllables are two; Svar the foot, for the feet are two, and these syllables are two. Its secret name is Aham (ego), and he who knows this, destroys (hanti) evil and leaves (gahâti) it.


Footnotes

191:1 Here explained by the commentator as Pûtrâtmaka Hiranyagarbha.

191:2 Here explained as Virâg.

191:3 Satyam is often pronounced satiam, as trisyllabic. Sankara, however, takes the second syllable as t only, and explains the i after it as an anubandha. The Kânva text gives the three syllables as sa, ti, am, which seems preferable; cf. Khând. Up. VIII, 3, 5; Taitt. Up. II, 6.

191:4 This is explained by a mere play on the letters, sa and ya having nothing in common with mrityu, death, whereas t occurs in mrityu and anrita. Dvivedaganga takes sa and am as true, because they occur in satya and amrita, and not in mrityu, while ti is untrue, because the t occurs in mrityu and amrita.

192:1 Svar has to be pronounced suvar.

SIXTH BRÂHMANA.

1. That person, under the form of mind (manas), being light indeed 2, is within the heart, small like a grain of rice or barley. He is the ruler of all, the lord of all–he rules all this, whatsoever exists.


Footnotes

192:2 Bhâhsatya must be taken as one word, as the commentator says, bhâ eva satyam sadbhâvah svarûpam yasya so ‘yam bhâhsatyo bhâsvarah.

SEVENTH BRÂHMANA.

1. They say that lightning is Brahman, because lightning (vidyut) is called so from cutting off (vidânât) 3. Whosoever knows this, that lightning is Brahman, him (that Brahman) cuts off from evil, for lightning indeed is Brahman.


Footnotes

192:3 From do, avakhandane, to cut; the lightning cutting through the darkness of the clouds, as Brahman, when known, cuts through the darkness of ignorance.

EIGHTH BRÂHMANA.

1. Let him meditate on speech as a cow. Her four udders are the words Svâhâ, Vashat, Hanta, and Svadhâ 1. The gods live on two of her udders, the Svâhâ and the Vashat, men on the Hanta, the fathers on the Svadhâ. The bull of that cow is breath (prâna), the calf the mind.


Footnotes

193:1 There are two udders, the Svâhâ and Vashat, on which the gods feed, i.e. words with which oblations are given to the gods. With Hanta they are given to men, with Svadhâ to the fathers.

NINTH BRÂHMANA.

1. Agni Vaisvânara, is the fire within man by which the food that is eaten is cooked, i.e. digested. Its noise is that which one hears, if one covers one’s ears. When he is on the point of departing this life, he does not hear that noise.

ENTH BRÂHMANA.

1. When the person goes away from this world, he comes to the wind. Then the wind makes room for him, like the hole of a carriage wheel, and through it he mounts higher. He comes to the sun. Then the sun makes room for him, like the hole of a Lambara 2, and through it he mounts higher. He comes to the moon. Then the moon makes room for him, like the hole of a drum, and through it he mounts higher, and arrives at the world where there is no sorrow, no snow 3. There he dwells eternal years.


Footnotes

193:2 A musical instrument.

193:3 The commentator explains hima by bodily pain, but snow is much more characteristic.

ELEVENTH BRÂHMANA.

This is indeed the highest penance, if a man, laid up with sickness, suffers pain 1. He who knows this, conquers the highest world.

This is indeed the highest penance, if they carry a dead person into the forest 2. He who knows this, conquers the highest world.

This is indeed the highest penance, if they place a dead person on the fire 3. He who knows this, conquers the highest world.


Footnotes

194:1 The meaning is that, while he is suffering pain from illness, he should think that he was performing penance. If he does that, he obtains the same reward for his sickness which he would have obtained for similar pain inflicted on himself for the sake of performing penance.

194:2 This is like the penance of leaving the village and living in the forest.

194:3 This is like the penance of entering into the fire.

TWELFTH BRÂHMANA.

1. Some say that food is Brahman, but this is not so, for food decays without life (prâna). Others say that life (prâna) is Brahman, but this is not so, for life dries up without food. Then these two deities (food and life), when they have become one, reach that highest state (i. e. are Brahman). Thereupon Prâtrida said to his father: ‘Shall I be able to do any good to one who knows this, or shall I be able to do him any harm 4?’ The father said to him, beckoning with his hand: ‘Not so, O Prâtrida; for who could reach the highest state, if he has only got to the oneness of these two?’ He then said to him: ‘Vi;

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verily, food is Vi, for all these beings rest (vishtâni) on food.’ He then said: ‘Ram; verily, life is Ram, for all these beings delight (ramante) in life. All beings rest on him, all beings delight in him who knows this.’


Footnotes

194:4 That is, is he not so perfect in knowledge that nothing can harm him?

THIRTEENTH BRÂHMANA.

1. Next follows the Uktha 1. Verily, breath (prâna) is Uktha, for breath raises up (utthâpayati) all this. From him who knows this, there is raised a wise son, knowing the Uktha; he obtains union and oneness with the Uktha.

2. Next follows the Yagus. Verily, breath is Yagus, for all these beings are joined in breath 2. For him who knows this, all beings are joined to procure his excellence; he obtains union and oneness with the Yagus.

3. Next follows the Sâman. Verily, breath is the Sâman, for all these beings meet in breath. For him who knows this, all beings meet to procure his excellence; he obtains union and oneness with the Sâman.

4. Next follows the Kshatra. Verily, breath is the Kshatra, for breath is Kshatra, i.e. breath protects (trâyate) him from being hurt (kshanitoh). He who knows this, obtains Kshatra (power), which requires no protection; he obtains union and oneness with Kshatra 3.


Footnotes

195:1 Meditation on the hymn called uktha. On the uktha, as the principal part in the Mahâvrata, see Kaush. Up. III, 3; Ait. Âr. II, 1, 2. The uktha, yagus, sâman, &c. are here represented as forms under which prâna or life, and indirectly Brahman, is to be meditated on.

195:2 Without life or breath nothing can join anything else; therefore life is called yagus, as it were yugus.

195:3 Instead of Kshatram atram, another Sâkhâ, i.e. the Mâdhyandina, reads Kshatramâtram, which Dvivedaganga explains as, he p. 196 obtains the nature of the Kshatra, or he obtains the Kshatra which protects (Kshatram âtram).

FOURTEENTH BRÂHMANA.

1. The words Bhûmi (earth), Antariksha (sky), and Dyu 1 (heaven) form eight syllables. One foot of the Gâyatrî consists of eight syllables. This (one foot) of it is that (i. e. the three worlds). And he who thus knows that foot of it, conquers as far as the three worlds extend.

2. The Rikas, the Yagûmshi, and the Sâmâni form eight syllables. One foot (the second) of the Gâyatrî consists of eight syllables. This (one foot) of it is that (i.e. the three Vedas, the Rig-veda, Yagur-veda, and Sama-veda). And he who thus knows that foot of it, conquers as far as that threefold knowledge extends.

3. The Prâna (the up-breathing), the Apâna (the down-breathing), and the Vyâna (the back-breathing) form eight syllables. One foot (the third) of the Gâyatrî consists of eight syllables. This (one foot) of it is that (i. e. the three vital breaths). And he who thus knows that foot of it, conquers as far as there is anything that breathes. And of that (Gâyatrî, or speech) this indeed is the fourth (turîya), the bright (darsata) foot, shining high above the skies 2. What is here called turîya (the fourth) is meant for katurtha (the fourth); what is called darsatam padam (the bright foot) is meant for him who is as it were seen (the person in the sun); and what is called paroragas (he who shines high above the

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skies) is meant for him who shines higher and higher above every sky. And he who thus knows that foot of the Gâyatrî, shines thus himself also with happiness and glory.

4. That Gâyatrî (as described before with its three feet) rests on that fourth foot, the bright one, high above the sky. And that again rests on the True (satyam), and the True is the eye, for the eye is (known to be) true. And therefore even now, if two persons come disputing, the one saying, I saw, the other, I heard, then we should trust the one who says, I saw. And the True again rests on force (balam), and force is life (prâna), and that (the True) rests on life 1. Therefore they say, force is stronger than the True. Thus does that Gâyatrî rest with respect to the self (as life). That Gâyatrî protects (tatre) the vital breaths (gayas); the gayas are the prânas (vital breaths), and it protects them. And because it protects (tatre) the vital breaths (gayas), therefore it is called Gâyatrî. And that Savitri verse which the teacher teaches 2, that is it (the life, the prâna, and indirectly the Gâyatrî); and whomsoever he teaches, he protects his vital breaths.

5. Some teach that Sâvitrî as an Anushtubh 3 verse, saying that speech is Anushtubh, and that we teach

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that speech. Let no one do this, but let him teach the Gâyatrî as Sâvitrî 1. And even if one who knows this receives what seems to be much as his reward (as a teacher), yet this is not equal to one foot of the Gâyatrî.

6. If a man (a teacher) were to receive as his fee these three worlds full of all things, he would obtain that first foot of the Gâyatrî. And if a man were to receive as his fee everything as far as this threefold knowledge extends, he would obtain that second foot of the Gâyatrî. And if a man were to receive as his fee everything whatsoever breathes, he would obtain that third foot of the Gâyatrî. But ‘that fourth bright foot, shining high above the skies 2‘ cannot be obtained by anybody–whence then could one receive such a fee?

7. The adoration 3 of that (Gâyatrî):

‘O Gâyatrî, thou hast one foot, two feet, three feet, four feet 4. Thou art footless, for thou art not known. Worship to thy fourth bright foot above the skies.’ If 5 one (who knows this) hates some

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one and says, ‘May he not obtain this,’ or ‘May this wish not be accomplished to him,’ then that wish is not accomplished to him against whom he thus prays, or if he says, ‘May I obtain this.’

8. And thus Ganaka Vaideha spoke on this point to Budila Âsvatarâsvi 1: ‘How is it that thou who spokest thus as knowing the Gâyatrî, hast become an elephant and carriest me?’ He answered: ‘Your Majesty, I did not know its mouth. Agni, fire, is indeed its mouth; and if people pile even what seems much (wood) on the fire, it consumes it all. And thus a man who knows this, even if he commits what seems much evil, consumes it all and becomes pure, clean, and free from decay and death.’


Footnotes

196:1 Dyu, nom. Dyaus, must be pronounced Diyaus.

196:2 Paronagas, masc., should be taken as one word, like paroksha, viz. he who is beyond all ragas, all visible skies.

197:1 Sankara understood the True (satyam) by tad, not the balam, the force.

197:2 The teacher teaches his pupil, who is brought to him when eight years old, the Sâvitrî verse, making him repeat each word, and each half verse, till he knows the whole, and by teaching him that Sâvitrî, he is supposed to teach him really the prâna, the life, as the self of the world.

197:3 The verse would be, Rig-veda V, 82, 1:

Tat savitur vrinîmahe vayam devasya bhoganam
Sreshtham sarvadhâtamam turam bhagasya dhîmahi.

198:1 Because Gâyatrî represents life, and the pupil receives life when be learns the Gâyatrî.

198:2 See before, § 2.

198:3 Upasthâna is the act of approaching the gods, προσκύνησις Angehen, with a view of obtaining a request. Here the application is of two kinds, abhikârika, imprecatory against another, and abhyudayika, auspicious for oneself. The former has two formulas, the latter one. An upasthâna is here represented as effective, if connected with the Gâyatrî.

198:4 Consisting of the three worlds, the threefold knowledge, the threefold vital breaths, and the fourth foot, as described before.

198:5 I have translated this paragraph very freely, and differently from Sankara. The question is, whether dvishyât with iti can be used in the sense of abhikâra, or imprecation. if not, I do not see how the words should be construed. The expression yasmâ upatishthate p. 199 is rightly explained by Dvivedaganga, yadartham evam upatishthate.

199:1 Asvatarasyâsvasyâpatyam, Sankara.

FIFTEENTH BRÂHMANA.

1. 2The face of the True (the Brahman) is covered with a golden disk 3. Open that, O Pûshan 4, that we may see the nature of the True 5.

2. O Pûshan, only seer, Yama (judge), Sûrya (sun), son of Pragâpati 6, spread thy rays and gather them!

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The light which is thy fairest form, I see it. I am what he is (viz. the person in the sun).

3. Breath to air and to the immortal! Then this my body ends in ashes. Om! Mind, remember! Remember thy deeds! Mind, remember! Remember thy deeds 1!

4. Agni, lead us on to wealth (beatitude) by a good path 2, thou, O God, who knowest all things! Keep far from us crooked evil, and we shall offer thee the fullest praise! (Rv. I, 189, 1.)


Footnotes

199:2 These verses, which are omitted here in the Mâdhyandina text, are found at the end of the Vâgasaneyi-upanishad 15-18. They are supposed to be a prayer addressed to Âditya by a dying person.

199:3 Mahîdhara on verse 17: The face of the true (purusha in the sun), is covered by a golden disk.’ Sankara explains here mukha, face, by mukhyam svarûpam, the principal form or nature.

199:4 Pûshan is here explained as a name of Savitri, the sun; likewise all the names in the next verse.

199:5 Cf. Maitr. Up. VI, 35.

199:6 Of Îsvara or Hiranyagarbha.

200:1 The Vâgasaneyi-samhitâ reads: Om, krato smara, klibe smara, kritam smara. Uvata holds that Agni, fire, who has been worshipped in youth and manhood, is here invoked in the form of mind, or that kratu is meant for sacrifice. ‘Agni, remember me ‘Think of the world! Remember my deeds!’ Klibe is explained by Mahîdhara as a dative of klip, klip meaning loka, world, what is made to be enjoyed (kalpyate bhogâya).

200:2 Not by the Southern path, the dark, from which there is a fresh return to life.

SIXTH ADHYÂYA.

FIRST BRÂHMANA 1.

1. Harih, Om. He who knows the first and the best, becomes himself the first and the best among his people. Breath is indeed the first and the best. He who knows this, becomes the first and the best among his people, and among whomsoever he wishes to be so.

2. He who knows the richest 2, becomes himself the richest among his people. Speech is the richest. He who knows this, becomes the richest among his people, and among whomsoever he wishes to be so.

3. He who knows the firm rest, becomes himself firm on even and uneven ground. The eye indeed is the firm rest, for by means of the eye a man stands firm on even and uneven ground. He who knows this, stands firm on even and uneven ground.

4. He who knows success, whatever desire he desires, it succeeds to him. The ear indeed is success. For in the ear are all these Vedas successful. He who knows this, whatever desire he desires, it succeeds to him.

5. He who knows the home, becomes a home of his own people, a home of all men. The mind

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indeed is the home. He who knows this, becomes a home of his own people and a home of all men.

6. He who knows generation 1, becomes rich in offspring and cattle. Seed indeed is generation. He who knows this, becomes rich in offspring and cattle.

7. These Prânas (senses), when quarrelling together as to who was the best, went to Brahman 2 and said: ‘Who is the richest of us?’ He replied: ‘He by whose departure this body seems worst, he is the richest.’

8. The tongue (speech) departed, and having been absent for a year, it came back and said: ‘How have you been able to live without me?’ They replied: ‘Like unto people, not speaking with the tongue, but breathing with breath, seeing with the eye, hearing with the ear, knowing with the mind, generating with seed. Thus we have lived.’ Then speech entered in.

9. The eye (sight) departed, and having been absent for a year, it came back and said: ‘How have you been able to live without me?’ They replied: ‘Like blind people, not seeing with the eye, but breathing with the breath, speaking with the tongue, hearing with the ear, knowing with the mind, generating with seed. Thus we have lived.’ Then the eye entered in.

10. The ear (hearing) departed, and having been absent for a year, it came back and said: ‘How have you been able to live without me?’ They replied: ‘Like deaf people, not hearing with the ear,


Footnotes

201:1 This Brâhmana, also called a Khila (p. 1010, l. 8; p. 1029, l. 8), occurs in the Mâdhyandina-sâkhâ XIV, 9, 2. It should be compared with the Khândogya-upanishad V, 1 (Sacred Books of the East, vol. i, p. 72); also with the Ait. Âr. II, 4; Kaush. Up. III, 3; and the Praa Up. II, 3.

201:2 Here used as a feminine, while in the Khând. Up. V, 1, it is vasishtha.

202:1 This is wanting in the Khând. Up. Roer and Poley read Pragâpati for pragâti. MS, I. O. 3 75 has pragâti, MS. I. O. 1973 pragâpati.

202:2 Here we have Pragâpati, instead of Brahman, in the Khând. Up.; also sreshtha instead of vasishtha.

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but breathing with the breath, speaking with the tongue, seeing with the eye, knowing with the mind, generating with seed. Thus we have lived.’ Then the ear entered in.

11. The mind departed, and having been absent for a year, it came back and said: ‘How have you been able to live without me?’ They replied: ‘Like fools, not knowing with their mind, but breathing with the breath, seeing with the eye, hearing with the ear, generating with seed. Thus we have lived.’ Then the mind entered in.

12. The seed departed, and having been absent for a year, it came back and said: ‘How have you been able to live without me?’ They replied: ‘Like impotent people, not generating with seed, but breathing with the breath, seeing with the eye, hearing with the ear, knowing with the mind. Thus we have lived.’ Then the seed entered in.

13. The (vital) breath, when on the point of departing, tore up these senses, as a great, excellent horse of the Sindhu country might tare up the pegs to which he is tethered. They said to him: ‘Sir, do not depart. We shall not be able to live without thee.’ He said: ‘Then make me an offering.’ They said: ‘Let it be so.’

14. Then the tongue said: ‘If I am the richest, then thou art the richest by it.’ The eye said: ‘If I am the firm rest, then thou art possessed of firm rest by it.’ The ear said: ‘If I am success, then thou art possessed of success by it.’ The mind said: ‘If I am the home, thou art the home by it.’ The seed said: ‘If I am generation, thou art possessed of generation by it.’ He said: ‘What shall be food, what shall be dress for me?’

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They replied: ‘Whatever there is, even unto dogs, worms, insects, and birds 1, that is thy food, and water thy dress. He who thus knows the food of Ana (the breath) 2, by him nothing is eaten that is not (proper) food, nothing is received that is not (proper) food. Srotriyas (Vedic theologians) who know this, rinse the mouth with water when they are going to eat, and rinse the mouth with water after they have eaten, thinking that thereby they make the breath dressed (with water).’

204:1 It may mean, every kind of food, such as is eaten by dogs, worms, insects, and birds.

204:2 We must read, with MS. I. O. 375, anasyânnam, not annasyânnam, as MS. I. O. 1973, Roer, and Poley read. Weber has the right reading, which is clearly suggested by Khând. Up. V, 2, 1.

SECOND BRÂHMANA 3.

1. Svetaketu Âruneya went to the settlement of the Pañkâlas. He came near to Pravâhana Gaivali 4, who was walking about (surrounded by his men). As soon as he (the king) saw him, he said: ‘My boy!’ Svetaketu replied: ‘Sir!’

Then the king said: ‘Have you been taught by your father!’ ‘Yes,’ he replied.

2. The king said: ‘Do you know how men, when they depart from here, separate from each other?’ ‘No,’ he replied.

‘Do you know how they come back to this world?’ ‘No,’ he replied 5.

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‘Do you know how that world does never become full with the many who again and again depart thither?’ ‘No,’ he replied.

‘Do you know at the offering of which libation the waters become endowed with a human voice and rise and speak?’ ‘No,’ he replied.

‘Do you know the access to the path leading to the Devas and to the path leading to the Fathers, i.e. by what deeds men gain access to the path leading to the Devas or to that leading to the Fathers? For we have heard even the saying of a Rishi: “I heard of two paths for men, one leading to the Fathers, the other leading to the Devas. On those paths all that lives moves on, whatever there is between father (sky) and mother (earth).”‘

Svetaketu said: ‘I do not know even one of all these questions.’

3. Then the king invited him to stay and accept his hospitality. But the boy, not caring for hospitality, ran away, went back to his father, and said: ‘Thus then you called me formerly well-instructed!’ The father said: ‘What then, you sage?’ The son replied: ‘That fellow of a Râganya asked me five questions, and I did not know one of them.’

‘What were they?’ said the father.

‘These were they,’ the son replied, mentioning the different heads.

4. The father said: ‘You know me, child, that whatever I know, I told you. But come, we shall go thither, and dwell there as students.’

‘You may go, Sir,’ the son replied.

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Then Gautama went where (the place of) Pravâhana Gaivali was, and the king offered him a seat, ordered water for him, and gave him the proper offerings. Then he said to him: ‘Sir, we offer a boon to Gautama.’

5. Gautama said: ‘That boon is promised to me; tell me the same speech which you made in the presence of my boy.’

6. He said: ‘That belongs to divine boons, name one of the human boons.’

7. He said: ‘You know well that I have plenty of gold, plenty of cows, horses, slaves, attendants, and apparel; do not heap on me 1 what I have already in plenty, in abundance, and superabundance.’

The king said: ‘Gautama, do you wish (for instruction from me) in the proper way?’

Gautama replied: ‘I come to you as a pupil.’

In word only have former sages (though Brahmans) come as pupils (to people of lower rank), but Gautama actually dwelt as a pupil (of Pravâhana, who was a Râganya) in order to obtain the fame of having respectfully served his master 2.

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8. The king said: ‘Do not be offended with us, neither you nor your forefathers, because this knowledge has before now never dwelt with any Brâhmana 1. But I shall tell it to you, for who could refuse you when you speak thus?

9. ‘The altar (fire), O Gautama, is that world (heaven) 2; the fuel is the sun itself, the smoke his rays, the light the day, the coals the quarters, the sparks the intermediate quarters. On that altar the Devas offer the sraddhâ libation (consisting of water 3). From that oblation rises Soma, the king (the moon).

10. ‘The altar, O Gautama, is Parganya (the god of rain); the fuel is the year itself, the smoke the clouds, the light the lightning, the coals the thunderbolt, the sparks the thunderings. On that altar the Devas offer Soma, the king (the moon). From that oblation rises rain.

11. ‘The altar, O Gautama, is this world 4; the fuel is the earth itself, the smoke the fire, the light the night, the coals the moon, the sparks the stars. On that altar the Devas offer rain. From that oblation rises food.

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12. ‘The altar, O Gautama, is man; the fuel the opened mouth, the smoke the breath, the light the tongue, the coals the eye, the sparks the ear. On that altar the Devas offer food. From that oblation rises seed.

13. ‘The altar, O Gautama, is woman 1. On that altar the Devas offer seed. From that oblation rises man. He lives so long as he lives, and then when he dies,

14. ‘They take him to the fire (the funeral pile), and then the altar-fire is indeed fire, the fuel fuel, the smoke smoke, the light light, the coals coals, the sparks sparks. In that very altar-fire the Devas offer man, and from that oblation man rises, brilliant in colour.

15. ‘Those who thus know this (even Grihasthas), and those who in the forest worship faith and the True 2 (Brahman Hiranyagarbha), go to light (arkis), from light to day, from day to the increasing half, from the increasing half to the six months when the sun goes to the north, from those six months to the world of the Devas (Devaloka), from the world of the Devas to the sun, from the sun to the place of lightning. When they have thus reached the place of lightning a spirit 3 comes near them, and leads them to the worlds of the (conditioned) Brahman. In these worlds of Brahman they dwell exalted for ages. There is no returning for them.

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16. ‘But they who conquer the worlds (future states) by means of sacrifice, charity, and austerity, go to smoke, from smoke to night, from night to the decreasing half of the moon, from the decreasing half of the moon to the six months when the sun goes to the south, from these months to the world of the fathers, from the world of the fathers to the moon. Having reached the moon, they become food, and then the Devas feed on them there, as sacrificers feed on Soma, as it increases and decreases 1. But when this (the result of their good works on earth) ceases, they return again to that ether, from ether to the air, from the air to rain, from rain to the earth. And when they have reached the earth, they become food, they are offered again in the altar-fire, which is man (see § 11), and thence are born in the fire of woman. Thus they rise up towards the worlds, and go the same round as before.

‘Those, however, who know neither of these two paths, become worms, birds,, and creeping things.’


Footnotes

204:3 See Khând. Up. V, 3; Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, I, 433; Deussen, Vedânta, p. 390. The commentator treats this chapter as a supplement, to explain the ways that lead to the pitriloka and the devaloka.

204:4 The MSS. I. O. 375 and 1973 give Gaivali, others Gaibali. He is a Kshatriya sage, who appears also in Khând. Up. I, 8, 1, as silencing Brâhmanas.

204:5 The same question is repeated in Roer’s edition, only substituting p. 205 sampadyante for âpadyante. The MSS. I. O. 375 and 1973 do not support this.

206:1 Abhyavadânya is explained as niggardly, or unwilling to give, and derived from vadânya, liberal, a-vadânya, illiberal, and abhi, towards. This, however, is an impossible form in Sanskrit. Vadânya means liberal, and stands for avadânya, this being derived from avadâna, lit. what is cut off, then a morsel, a gift. In abhyavadânya the original a reappears, so that abhyavadânya means, not niggardly, but on the contrary, liberal, i.e. giving more than is required. Avadânya has never been met with in the sense of niggardly, and though a rule of Pânini sanctions the formation of a-vadânya, it does not say in what sense. Abhyavadâ in the sense of cutting off in addition occurs in Satap. Br. II, 5, 2, 40; avadânam karoti, in the sense of making a present, occurs Maitr. Up. VI, 33.

206:2 The commentator takes the opposite view. In times of distress, he says, former sages, belonging to a higher caste, have p. 207 submitted to become pupils to teachers of a lower caste, not, however, in order to learn, but simply in order to live. Therefore Gautama also becomes a pupil in name only, for it would be against all law to act otherwise. See Gautama, Dharma-sûtras VII, i, ed, Stenzler; translated by Bühler, p. 209.

207:1 Here, too, my translation is hypothetical, and differs widely from Sankara.

207:2 Cf. Khând. Up. V, 4.

207:3 Deussen translates In diesem Feuer opfern die Götter den Glauben.’

207:4 Here a distinction is made between ayam loka, this world, and prithivî, earth, while in the Khând. Up. ayam loka is the earth, asau loka the heaven.

208:1 Tasyâ upastha eva samil, lomâni dhûmo, yonir arkir, yad antahkaroti te ‘ngârâ, abhinandâ visphulinh.

208:2 Sankara translates, ‘those who with faith worship the True,’ and this seems better.

208:3 ‘A person living in the Brahma-world, sent forth, i.e. created, by Brahman, by the mind,’ Sankara. ‘Der ist nicht wie ein Mensch,’ Deussen, p. 392.

209:1 See note 4 on Khând. Up. V, 10, and Deussen, Vedânta, p. 393. Sankara guards against taking âpyâyasvâpakshîyasva as a mantra. A similar construction is gâyasva mriyasva, see Khând. Up. V, 10, 8.

THIRD BRÂHMANA 2.

1. If a man wishes to reach greatness (wealth for performing sacrifices), he performs the upasad rule during twelve days 3 (i. e. he lives on small quantities of milk), beginning on an auspicious day of the light half of the moon during the northern progress of the sun, collecting at the same time in a cup or a dish

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made of Udumbara wood all sorts of herbs, including fruits. He sweeps the floor (near the house-altar, âvasathya), sprinkles it, lays the fire, spreads grass round it according to rule 1, prepares the clarified butter (âgya), and on a day, presided over by a male star (nakshatra), after having properly mixed the Mantha 2 (the herbs, fruits, milk, honey, &c.), he sacrifices (he pours âgya into the fire), saying 3: ‘O Gâtavedas, whatever adverse gods there are in thee, who defeat the desires of men, to them I offer this portion; may they, being pleased, please me with all desires.’ Svâhâ!

‘That cross deity who lies down 4, thinking that all things are kept asunder by her, I worship thee as propitious with this stream of ghee.’ Svâhâ!

2. He then says, Svâhâ to the First, Svâhâ to the Best, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar).

He then says, Svâhâ to Breath, Svâhâ to her who is the richest, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar).

He then says, Svâhâ to Speech, Svâhâ to the Support, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar).

He then says, Svâhâ to the Eye, Svâhâ to Success, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar).

He then says, Svâhâ to the Ear, Svâhâ to the

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[paragraph continues] Home, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar).

He then says, Svâhâ to the Mind, Svâhâ to Offspring, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar).

He then says, Svâhâ to Seed, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar).

3. He then says, Svâhâ to Agni (fire), pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar).

He then says, Svâhâ to Soma, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar).

He then says, Bhûh (earth), Svâhâ, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar).

He then says, Bhuvah (sky), Svâhâ, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar).

He then says, Svah (heaven), Svâhâ, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar).

He then says, Bhûr, Bhuvah, Svah, Svâhâ, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar).

He then says, Svâhâ to Brahman (the priesthood), pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar).

He then says, Svâhâ to Kshatra (the knighthood), pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar).

He then says, Svâhâ to the Past, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar).

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He then says, Svâhâ to the Future, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar).

He then says, Svâhâ to the Universe, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar).

He then says, Svâhâ to all things, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar).

He then says, Svâhâ to Pragâpati, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar).

4. Then he touches it (the Mantha, which is dedicated to Prâna, breath), saying: ‘Thou art fleet (as breath). Thou art burning (as fire). Thou art full (as Brahman). Thou art firm (as the sky). Thou art the abode of all (as the earth). Thou hast been saluted with Hin (at the beginning of the sacrifice by the prastotri). Thou art saluted with Hin (in the middle of the sacrifice by the prastotri). Thou hast been sung (by the udgâtri at the beginning of the sacrifice). Thou art sung (by the udgâtri in the middle of the sacrifice). Thou hast been celebrated (by the adhvaryu at the beginning of the sacrifice). Thou art celebrated again (by the âgnîdhra in the middle of the sacrifice). Thou art bright in the wet (cloud). Thou art great. Thou art powerful. Thou art food (as Soma). Thou art light (as Agni, fire, the eater). Thou art the end. Thou art the absorption (of all things).’

5. Then he holds it (the Mantha) forth, saying

‘Thou 1 knowest all, we know thy greatness. He is

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indeed a king, a ruler, the highest lord. May that king, that ruler make me the highest lord.’

6. Then he eats it, saying: ‘Tat savitur varenyam 1 (We meditate on that adorable light)–The winds drop honey for the righteous, the rivers drop honey, may our plants be sweet as honey! Bhûh (earth) Svâhâ!

‘Bhargo devasya dhîmahi (of the divine Savitri)–May the night be honey in the morning, may the air above the earth, may heaven, our father, be honey! Bhuvah (sky) Svâhâ!’

‘Dhiyo yo nah prokodayât (who should rouse our thoughts)–May the tree be full of honey, may the sun be full of honey, may our cows be sweet like honey! Svah (heaven) Svâhâ!’

He repeats the whole Sâvitrî verse, and all the verses about the honey, thinking, May I be all this! Bhûr, Bhuvah, Svah, Svâhâ! Having thus swallowed all, he washes his hands, and sits down behind the altar, turning his head to the East. In the morning he worships Âditya (the sun), with the hymn, ‘Thou art the best lotus of the four quarters, may I become the best lotus among men.’ Then returning as he came, he sits down behind the altar and recites the genealogical list 2.

7. Uddâlaka Âruni told this (Mantha-doctrine) to his pupil Vâgasaneya Yâavalkya, and said: ‘If a man were to pour it on a dry stick, branches would grow, and leaves spring forth.’

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8. Vâgasaneya Yâavalkya told the same to his pupil Madhuka Paingya, and said: ‘If a man were to pour it on a dry stick, branches would grow, and leaves spring forth.’

9. Madhuka Paingya told the same to his pupil Kûla Bhâgavitti, and said: ‘If a man were to pour it on a dry stick, branches would grow, and leaves spring forth.’

10. Kûla Bhâgavitti told the same to his pupil Gânaki Âyasthûna, and said: ‘If a man were to pour it on a dry stick, branches would grow, and leaves spring forth.’

11. Gânaki Âyasthûna told the same to his pupil Satyakâma Gâbâla, and said: ‘If a man were to pour it on a dry stick, branches would grow, and leaves spring forth.’

12. Satyakâma Gâbâla told the same to his pupils, and said: ‘If a man were to pour it on a dry stick, branches would grow, and leaves spring forth.’

Let no one tell this 1 to any one, except to a son or to a pupil 2.

13. Four things are made of the wood of the Udumbara tree, the sacrificial ladle (sruva), the cup (kamasa), the fuel, and the two churning sticks.

There are ten kinds of village (cultivated) seeds, viz. rice and barley (brîhiyavâs), sesamum and kidney-beans (tilamâshâs), millet and panic seed (anupriyangavas), wheat (godhûmâs), lentils (masûrâs), pulse (khalvâs), and vetches (khalakulâs 3) . After having

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ground these he sprinkles them with curds (dadhi), honey, and ghee, and then offers (the proper portions) of clarified butter 1gya).


Footnotes

209:2 Mâdhyandina text, p. 1103; cf. Khând. Up. V, 2, 4-8; Kaush. Up. II, 3.

209:3 Yasmin punye ‘nukûle ‘hni karma kikîrshati tatah prâk punyâham evârabhya dvâdasâham upasadvratî.

210:1 As the whole act is considered smârta, not srauta, the order to be observed (âvrit) is that of the sthâlîpâka.

210:2 Dravadravye prakshiptâ mathitâh saktavah is the explanation of Mantha, given in Gaimin. N. M. V. p. 406.

210:3 These verses are not explained by Sankara, and they are absent in the Khând. Up. V, 2, 6, 4.

210:4 The Mâdhyandinas read nipadyase.

212:1 These curious words â mamsi â mamhi te mahi are not explained by Sankara. Ânandagiri explains them as I have translated p. 213 them. They correspond to ‘amo, nâmâsy ama hi te sarvam idam’ in the Khând. Up. V, 2, 6, 6. The Mâdhyandinas read: ‘âmo ‘sy âmam hi te mayi, sa hi râgâ, &c. Dvivedaganga translates: thou art the knower, thy knowledge extends to me.’

213:1 Rv. III, 62, 10.

213:2 This probably refers to the list immediately following.

214:1 The Mantha-doctrine with the prânadarsana. Comm.

214:2 It probably means to no one except to one’s own son and to one’s own disciple. Cf. Svet. Up. VI, 22.

214:3 I have given the English names after Roer, who, living in India, had the best opportunity of identifying the various kinds of plants here mentioned. The commentators do not help us much. Sankara p. 215 says that in some places Priyangu (panic seed or millet) is called Kangu; that Khalva, pulse, is also called Nishpâva and Valla, and Khalakula, vetches, commonly Kulattha. Dvivedaganga adds that Anu is called in Guzerat Moriya, Priyangu Kangu, Khalva, as nishpâva, Valla, and Khalakula Kulattha.

FOURTH BRÂHMANA 2.

1. The earth is the essence of all these things, water is the essence of the earth, plants of water, flowers of plants, fruits of flowers, man of fruits, seed of man.

2. And Pragâpati thought, let me make an abode for him, and he created a woman (Satarûpâ).

m 3 srishtvâdha upâsta, tasmât striyam adha upâsîta. Sa etam prâñkam grâvânam âtmana eva samudapârayat, tenainâm abhyasrigat.

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3. Tasyâ vedir upastho, lomâni barhis, karmâdhishavane, samiddho 1 madhyatas, tau mushkau. Sa yâvân ha vai vâgapeyena yagamânasya loko bhavati tâvân asya loko bhavati ya evam vidvân adhopahâsam karaty a sa 2 strînam sukritam vrinkte ‘tha ya idam avidvân adhopahâsam karaty âsya striyah sukritam vriñgate.

4. Etad dha sma vai tadvidvân Uddâlaka Ârunir âhaitad dha sma vai tadvidvân Nâko Maudgalya âhaitad dha sma vai tadvidvân Kumârahârita âha, bahavo maryâ brâhmanâyanâ 3 nirindriyâ visukrito’smâl lokât prayanti 4 ya idam avidvâmso ‘dhopahâsam karantîti. Bahu vâ 5 idam suptasya va gâgrato vâ retah skandati,

5. Tad abhimrised anu vâ mantrayeta yan me ‘dya retah prithivîm askântsîd yad oshadhîr apy asarad yad apah, idam aham tad reta âdade punar mâm aitv indriyam punas tegah punar bhagah, punar agnayo 6 dhishnyâ yathâsthânam kalpantâm, ity anâmikângushthâbhyâm âdâyântarena stanau vâ bhruvau vâ nimriñgyât 7.

6. If a man see himself in the water 8, he should

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recite the following verse: ‘May there be in me splendour, strength, glory, wealth, virtue.’

She is the best of women whose garments are pure 1. Therefore let him approach a woman whose garments are pure, and whose fame is pure, and address her.

7. If she do not give in 2, let him, as he likes, bribe her (with presents). And if she then do not give in, let him, as he likes, beat her with a stick or with his hand, and overcome her 3, saying: ‘With manly strength and glory I take away thy glory,’–and thus she becomes unglorious 4.

8. If she give in, he says: ‘With manly strength and glory I give thee glory,’–and thus they both become glorious.

9. Sa yâm ikkhet kâmayeta meti tasyâm artham nishtâya 5 mukhena mukham sandhâyopastham asyâ abhimrisya gaped angâdangât sambhavasi hridayâd adhi gâyase, sa tvam angakashâyo 6 ‘si digdhaviddhâm 7 iva mâdayemâm amûm mayîti 8.

10. Atha yâm ikkhen na garbham dadhîteti 9 tasyâm artham nishtâya mukhena mukham sandhâyâbhiprânyâpânyâd indriyena te retasâ reta âdada ity aretâ 10 eva bhavati.

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11. Atha yâm ikkhed garbham dadhîteti tasyâm artham nishtâya mukhena mukham sandhâyâpânyâbhiprânyâd indriyena te retâsa reta âdadhâmîti garbhiny eva bhavati.

12. Now again, if a man’s wife has a lover and the husband hates him, let him (according to rule) 1 place fire by an unbaked jar, spread a layer of arrows in inverse order 2, anoint these three arrow-heads 3 with butter in inverse order, and sacrifice, saying: ‘Thou hast sacrificed in my fire, I take away thy up and down breathing, I here 4.’

‘Thou hast sacrificed in my fire, I take away thy sons and cattle, I here.’

‘Thou hast sacrificed in my fire, I take away thy sacred and thy good works, I here.’

‘Thou hast sacrificed in my fire, I take away thy hope and expectation, I here.’

He whom a Brâhmana who knows this curses, departs from this world without strength and without good works. Therefore let no one wish even for sport with the wife of a Srotriya 5 who knows this, for he who knows this, is a dangerous enemy.

13. When the monthly illness seizes his wife, she

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should for three days not drink from a metal vessel, and wear a fresh dress. Let no Vrishala or Vrishalî (a Sûdra man or woman) touch her. At the end of the three days, when she has bathed, the husband should make her pound rice 1.

14. And if a man wishes that a white son should be born to him, and that he should know one Veda, and live to his full age, then, after having prepared boiled rice with milk and butter, they should both eat, being fit to have offspring.

15. And if a man wishes that a reddish 2 son with tawny eyes should be born to him, and that he should know two Vedas, and live to his full age, then, after having prepared boiled rice with coagulated milk and butter, they should both eat, being fit to have offspring.

16. And if a man wishes that a dark son should be born to him with red eyes, and that he should know three Vedas, and live to his full age, then, after having prepared boiled rice with water and butter, they should both eat, being fit to have offspring.

17. And if a man wishes that a learned daughter should be born to him, and that she should live to her full age, then, after having prepared boiled rice with sesamum and butter, they should both eat, being fit to have offspring.

18. And if a man wishes that a learned son should be born to him, famous, a public man, a popular speaker, that he should know all the Vedas, and that

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he should live to his full age, then, after having prepared boiled rice with meat and butter, they should both eat, being fit to have offspring. The meat should be of a young or of an old bull.

19. And then toward morning, after having, according to the rule of the Sthâlîpâka (pot-boiling), performed the preparation of the Âgya (clarified butter 1), he sacrifices from the Sthâlîpâka bit by bit, saying: ‘This is for Agni, Svâhâ! This is for Anumati, Svâhâ! This is for the divine Savitri, the true creator, Svâhâ!’ Having sacrificed, he takes out the rest of the rice and eats it, and after having eaten, he gives it to his wife. Then he washes his hands, fills a water-jar, and sprinkles her thrice with it, saying: ‘Rise hence, O Visvâvasu 2, seek another blooming girl, a wife with her husband.’

20. Then he embraces her, and says: ‘I am Ama (breath), thou art Sâ (speech) 3. Thou art Sâ (speech), I am Ama (breath). I am the Sâman, thou art the Rik 4. I am the sky, thou art the earth. Come, let us strive together, that a male child may be begotten 5.’

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21. Athâsyâ ûrû vihâpayati, vigihîthâm dyâvâprithivî iti tasyâm artham nishtâya mukhena mukham sandhâya trir enâm anulomâm 1 anumârshti, Vishnur yonim kalpayatu, Tvashtâ rûpâni pimsatu, âsiñkatu Pragâpatir Dhâtâ garbham dadhatu te. Garbham dhehi Sinîvâli, garbham dhehi prithushtuke, garbham te Asvinau devâv âdhattâm pushkarasragau.

22. Hiranmayî aranî yâbhyâm nirmanthatâm 2 asvinau 3, tam te garbham havâmahe 4 dasame mâsi sûtave. Yathâgnigarbhâ prithivî, yathâ dyaur indrena garbhinî, vâyur disâm yathâ garbha evam garbham dadhâmî te ‘sav iti 5.

23. Soshyantîm 6 adbhir abhyukshati. Yathâ vâyuh 7 pushkarinîm samiñgayati sarvatah, evâ te garbha egatu sahâvaitu garâyunâ. Indrasyâyam vragah kritah sârgalah 8 saparisrayah 9, tam indra nirgahi garbhena sâvarâm 10 saheti.

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24 1. When the child is born, he prepares the fire, places the child on his lap, and having poured prishadâgya, i.e. dadhi (thick milk) mixed with ghrita (clarified butter) into a metal jug, he sacrifices bit by bit of that prishadâgya, saying: ‘May I, as I increase in this my house, nourish a thousand! May fortune never fail in his race, with offspring and cattle, Svâhâ!’

‘I offer to thee. in my mind the vital breaths which are in me, Svâhâ!’

‘Whatever 2 in my work I have done too much, or whatever I have here done too little, may the wise Agni Svishtakrit make this right and proper for us, Svâhâ!’

25. Then putting his mouth near the child’s right ear, he says thrice, Speech, speech 3! After

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that he pours together thick milk, honey, and clarified butter, and feeds the child with (a ladle of) pure gold 1, saying: ‘I give thee Bhûh, I give thee Bhuvah, I give thee Svah 2. Bhûr, Bhuvah, Svah, I give thee all 3.’

26 4. Then he gives him his name, saying: ‘Thou art Veda;’ but this is his secret name 5.

27. Then he hands the boy to his mother and gives him her breast, saying: ‘O Sarasvatî, that breast of thine which is inexhaustible, delightful, abundant, wealthy, generous, by which thou cherishest all blessings, make that to flow here 6.’

28 7. Then he addresses the mother of the boy:

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‘Thou art Ilâ Maitrâvarunî: thou strong woman hast born a strong boy. Be thou blessed with strong children thou who hast blessed me with a strong child.’

And they say of such a boy: ‘Ah, thou art better than thy father; ah, thou art better than thy grandfather. Truly he has reached the highest point in happiness, praise, and Vedic glory who is born as the son of a Brâhmana that knows this.’


Footnotes

215:1 According to the rules laid down in the proper Grihya-sûtras.

215:2 This Brâhmana is inserted here because there is supposed to be some similarity between the preparation of the Srîmantha and the Putramantha, or because a person who has performed the Srîmantha is fit to perform the Putramantha. Thus Sankara says: Prânadarsinah srîmantham karma kritavatah putramanthe ‘dhikârah. Yadâ putramantham kikîrshati tadâ srîmantham kritvâ ritukâlam patnyâh (brahmakaryena) pratîkshata iti.

215:3 I have given those portions of the text which did not admit of translation into English, in Sanskrit. It was not easy, however, to determine always the text of the Kânva-sâkhâ. Poley’s text is not always correct, and Roer seems simply to repeat it. Sankara’s commentary, which is meant for the Kânva text, becomes very short towards the end of the Upanishad. It is quite sufficient for the purpose of a translation, but by no means always for restoring a correct text. MS. Wilson 369, which has been assigned to the Kânva-sâkhâ, and which our Catalogue attributes to the same school, gives the Mâdhyandina text, and so does MS. Mill 108. I have therefore collated two MSS. of the India Office, which Dr. Rost had the kindness to select for me, MS. 375 and MS. 1973, which I call A. and B.

216:1 Roer reads samidho, but Sankara and Dvivedaganga clearly presuppose samiddho, which is in A. and B.

216:2 Roer has âsâm sa strînâm, Poley, A. and B. have âsâm strînâm. Sankara. (MS. Mill 64) read â sa strînâm, and later on âsya striyah, though both Roer and Poley leave out the â here too (â asyeti khedah).

216:3 Brâhmanâyanâh, the same as brahmabandhavah, i.e. Brâhmans by descent only, not by knowledge.

216:4 Narakam gakkhantîtyarthah. Dvivedaganga.

216:5 Bahu vâ svalpam vâ.

216:6 The Mâdhyandina text has agnayo, and Dvivedaganga explains it by dhîshnyâ agnayah sarîrasthitâh. Poley and Roer have punar agnir dhishnyâ, and so have A. and B.

216:7 Nirmrigyât, A.; nimriñgyât, B.

216:8 Dvivedaganga adds, retoyonâv udake retahsikas tatra svakkhâyâdarsane prâyaskittam âha.

217:1 Trirâtravratam kritvâ katurtha ‘hni snâtâm.

217:2 Instead of connecting kâmam with dadyât, Dvivedaganga explains it by yathâsakti.

217:3 Atikram, scil. maithunâya.

217:4 Bandhyâ durbhagâ.

217:5 Nishtâya, A. B.; nishthâya, Roer, Poley; the same in § 10.

217:6 Sa tvam angânâm kashâyo raso ‘si.

217:7 Vishaliptasaraviddhâm mrigîm iva.

217:8 Mâdayeti is the reading of the Mâdhyandina text. Poley, Roer, A. and B. read mâdayemâm amûm mayîti. Ânandagiri has mrigîm ivâmûm madiyâm striyam me mâdaya madvasâm kurv ityarthah. Dvivedaganga explains mâdayeti.

217:9 Rûpabhramsayauvanahânibhayât.

217:10 Agarbhinî.

218:1 Âvasathyâgnim eva pragvâlya.

218:2 Paskimâgram dakshinâgram vâ yathâ syât tathâ.

218:3 Tisrah is left out by Roer and Poley, by A. and B.

218:4 I have translated according to the Kânva text, as far as it could be made out. As there are four imprecations, it is but natural that tisrah should be left out in the Kânva text. It is found in the Mâdhyandina text, because there the imprecations are only three in number, viz. the taking away of hope and expectation, of sons and cattle, and of up and down breathing. Instead of asâv iti, which is sufficient, the Mâdhyandina text has asâv iti nâma grihnâti, and both Ânandagiri and Dvivedaganga allow the alternative, âtmanah satror vâ nâma grihnâti, though asau can really refer to the speaker only.

218:5 Roer reads dvârena; Poley, A. and B. dârena; the Mâdhyandinas p. 219 gâyâyâ. Sankara, according to Roer, interprets dvârena, but it seems that dvârena is used here in the singular, instead of the plural. See Pâraskara Grihya-sûtras I, 11.

219:1 To be used for the ceremony described in § 14 seq.

219:2 Kapilo varnatah pingalah pingâkshah.

220:1 Karum srapayitvâ.

220:2 Name of a Gandharva, as god of love. See Rig-veda X, 85, 22. Dvivedaganga explains the verse differently, so that the last words imply, I come together with my own wife.

220:3 Because speech is dependent on breath, as the wife is on the husband. See Khând. Up. I, 6, 1.

220:4 Because the Sâma-veda rests on the Rig-veda.

220:5 This is a verse which is often quoted and explained. It occurs in the Atharva-veda XIV, 71, as ‘amo ‘ham asmi si tvam, sâmâham asmy rik tvam, dyaur aham prithivî tvam; tâv iha sam bhavâva pragâm â ganayâvahai.’

Here we have the opposition between amah and sâ, while in the Ait. Brâhmana VIII, 27, we have amo ‘ham asmi sa tvam, giving amah in opposition to sa. It seems not unlikely that this p. 221 was an old proverbial formula, and that it meant originally no more than ‘I am he, and thou art she.’ But this meaning was soon forgotten. In the Khând. Up. I, 6, 1, we find sâ explained as earth, ama as fire (Sacred Books of the East, vol. i, p. 13). In the Ait. Brâhmana sâ is explained as Rik, ama as Sâman. I have therefore in our passage also followed the interpretation of the commentary, instead of rendering it, ‘I am he, and thou art she; thou art she, and I am he.’

221:1 Anulomam, mûrdhânam ârabhya pâdântam.

221:2 Nirmathitavantau.

221:3 Asvinau devau, Mâdhyandina text.

221:4 Dadhâmahe, Mâdhyandina text. Instead of sûtave, A. has sûyate, B. sûtaye.

221:5 Iti nâma grihnâti, Mâdhyandina text. Sankara says, asâv iti tasyâh. Ânandagiri says, asâv iti patyur vâ nirdesah; tasyâ nâma grihnâtîti pûrvena sambandhah. Dvivedaganga says, ante bhartâsâv aham iti svâtmano nâma grihnâti, bhâryâyâ vâ.

221:6 See Pâraskara Grihya-sûtra I. 16 seq.

221:7 Vatâh, M.

221:8 Argadayâ nirodhena saha vartamânah sârgadah, Dvivedaganga.

221:9 Saparisrayah, parisrayena pariveshtanena garâyunâ sahitah, Dvivedaganga.

221:10 Sâvarâm is the reading given by Poley, Roer, A. and B. p. 222 Ânandagiri explains: garbhanihsaranânantaram yâ mâmsapesî nirgakkhati sâvarâ, tâm ka nirgamayety arthah. Dvivedaganga (ed. Weber) writes: nirgamyamânamâmsapesî sâ-avarasabdavâkyâ, tam sâvaram ka nirgamaya.

222:1 These as well as the preceding rules refer to matters generally treated in the Grihya-sûtras; see Âsvalâyana, Grihya-sûtras I, 13 seq.; Pâraskara, Grihya-sûtras I, 11 seq.; Sânkâkyana, Grihya-sûtras I, 19 seq. It is curious, however, that Âsvalâyana I, 13, 1, refers distinctly to the Upanishad as the place where the pumsavana and similar matters were treated. This shows that the Upanishads were known before the composition of the Grihya-sûtras, and explains perhaps, at least partially, why the Upanishads were considered as rahasya. Âsvalâyana says, ‘Conception, begetting of a boy, and guarding the embryo are to be found in the Upanishad. But if a man does not read the Upanishad, let him know that he should feed his wife,’ &c. Nârâyana explains that Âsvalâyana here refers to an Upanishad which does not exist in his own Sâkhâ, but he objects to the conclusion that therefore the garbhâdhâna and other ceremonies need not be performed, and adds that some hold it should be performed, as prescribed by Saunaka and others.

222:2 Âsvalâyana, Grihya-sûtra I, 10, 23.

222:3 Trayîlakshanâ vâk tvayi pravisatv iti gapato ‘bhiprâyah.

223:1 Cf. Pâraskara Grihya-sûtras I, 16, 4, anâmikayâ suvarnântarhitayâ; Sânkhâyana, Grihya-sûtras I, 24, prâsayeg gâtarupena.

223:2 Bhûr bhuvah svah are explained by Dvivedaganga as the Rig-veda, Yagur-veda, and Sâma-veda. They might also be earth, air, and heaven. See Sânkhâyana, Grihya-sûtras 1, 24; Bhur rigvedam tvayi dadhâmi, &c.

223:3 The Mâdhyandinas add here another verse, which the father recites while he strokes his boy: ‘Be a stone, be an axe, be pure gold. Thou art my Self, called my son; live a hundred harvests.’ The same verse occurs in the Âsvalâyana Grihya-sûtras I, 15, 3.

223:4 The two ceremonies, here described, are the âyushya-karman and the medhâganana. They are here treated rather confusedly. Pâraskara (Grihya-sûtras I, 16, 3) distinguishes the medhâganana and the âyushya. He treats the medhâganana first, which consists in feeding the boy with honey and clarified butter, and saying to him bhûs tvayi dadhâmi, &c. The âyushya consists in repeating certain verses in the boy’s ear, wishing him a long life, &c. In Âsvalâyana’s Grihya-sûtras, I, 15, 1 contains the âyushya, I, 15, 2 the medhâganana. Sânkhâyana also (I, 24) treats the âyushya first, and the medhâganana afterwards, and the same order prevails in the Mâdhyandina text of the Brihadâranyaka-upanishad.

223:5 In the Mâdhyandina text these acts are differently arranged.

223:6 Rig-veda I, 164, 49.

223:7 These verses are differently explained by various commentators. Ânandagiri explains ilâ as stutyâ, bhogyâ. He derives Maitrâvarunî p. 224 from Maitrâvaruna, i.e. Vasishtha, the son of Mitrâvarunau, and identifies her with Arundhatî. Dvivedaganga takes idâ as bhogyâ, or idâpâtrî, or prithivîrûpâ, and admits that she may be called Maitrâvarunî, because born of Mitrâvarunau. Vîre is rightly taken as a vocative by Dvivedaganga, while Ânandagiri explains it as a locative, mayi nimittabhûte. One expects agîganah instead of agîganat, which is the reading of A. and B. The reading of the Mâdhyandinas, âgîganathâh, is right grammatically, but it offends against the metre, and is a theoretical rather than a real form. If we read agîganah, we must also read akarah, unless we are prepared to follow the commentator, who supplies bhavatî.

FIFTH BRÂHMANA.

1. Now follows the stem 1:

1. Pautimâshîputra from Kâtyâyanîputra,

2. Kâtyâyanîputra from Gotamîputra,
3. Gotamîputra from Bhâradvâgîputra,
4. Bhâradvâgîputra from Pârâsarîputra,
5. Pârâsarîputra from Aupasvatîputra,
6. Aupasvatîputra from Pârâsarîputra,
7. Pârâsarîputra from Kâtyâyanîputra,
8. Kâtyâyanîputra from Kausikîputra,
9. Kausikîputra from Âlambîputra and Vaiyâghrapadîputra,
10. Âlambîputra and Vaiyâghrapadîputra from Kânvîputra,
11. Kânvîputra from Kâpîputra,
12. Kâpîputra

2. from Âtreyîputra,

13. Âtreyîputra from Gautamîputra,
14. Gautamîputra from Bhâradvâgîputra,
15. Bhâradvâgîputra from Pârasarîputra,
16. Pârasarîputra from Vâtsîputra,
17. Vâtsîputra from Pârasarîputra,
18 1. Pârasarîputra from Vârkârunîputra,
19. Vârkârunîputra from Vârkârunîputra,
20. Vârkârunîputra from Ârtabhagîputra,
21. Ârtabhagîputra from Saungîputra,
22. Saungîputra from Sânkritîputra,
23 2. Sânkritîputra from Âlambâyanîputra,
24. Âlambâyanîputra from Âlambîputra,
25. Âlambîputra from Gayantîputra,
26. Gayantîputra from Mândûkâyanîputra,
27. Mândûkâyanîputra from Mândûkîputra,
28. Mândûkîputra from Sândilîputra,
29. Sândilîputra from Râthîtarîputra,
30 3. Râthîtarîputra from Bhâlukîputra,

p. 226

31. Bhâlukîputra from Krauñkikîputrau,
32. Krauñkikîputrau from Vaittabhatîputra 1,
33. Vaittabhatîputra from Kârsakeyîputra 2,
34. Kârsakeyîputra from Prâkînayogîputra,
35. Prâkînayogîputra from Sâñgîvîputra 3,
36. Sâñgîvîputra from Prâîputra Âsurivâsin,
37. Prâîputra Âsurivâsin from Âsurâyana,
38. Âsurâyana from Âsuri,
39. Âsuri

3. from Yâavalkya,

40. Yâavalkya from Uddâlaka,
41. Uddâlaka from Aruna,
42. Aruna from Upavesi,
43. Upavesi from Kusri,
44. Kusri from Vâgasravas,
45. Vâgasravas from Gihvâvat Vâdhyoga,
46. Gihvâvat Vâdhyoga from Asita Vârshagana,
47. Asita Vârshagana from Harita Kasyapa,
48. Harita Kasyapa from Silpa Kasyapa,
49. Silpa Kasyapa from Kasyapa Naidhruvi,
50. Kasyapa Naidhruvi from Vâk,
51. Vâk from Ambhinî,
52. Ambhinî from Âditya, the Sun.

As coming from Âditya, the Sun, these pure 4 Yagus verses have been proclaimed by Yâgñavalkya Vâgasaneya.

p. 227

4 1. The same as far as Sâñgîvîputra (No. 36), then

36. Sâñgîvîputra from Mândûkâyani,
37. Mândûkâyani from Mândavya,
38. Mândavya from Kautsa,
39. Kautsa from Mâhitthi,
40. Mâhitthi from Vâmakakshâyana,
41. Vâmakakshâyana from Sândilya,
42. Sândilya from Vâtsya,
43. Vâtsya from Kusri,
44. Kusri from Yaavakas Râgastambâyana,
45. Yaavakas Râgastambâyana from Tura Kâvasheya,
46. Tura Kâvasheya from Pragâpati,
47. Pragâpati from Brahman,
48. Brahman is Svayambhu, self-existent.

Adoration to Brahman!


Footnotes

224b:1 The Mâdhyandinas begin with vayam, we, then 1. Bhâradvâgîputra, 2. Vâtsîmandavîputra, 3. Pârasarîputra, 4. Gârgîputra, 5. Pârâsarî-kaundinîputra, 6. Gârgîputra, 7. Gârgîputra, 8. Bâdeyîputra, 9. Maushikîputra, 10. Hârikarnîputra, 11. Bhâradvâgîputra, 12. Paingîputra, 13. Saunakîputra, 14. Kâsyapî-bâlâkyâ-mâtharîputra, 15. Kautsîputra, 16. Baudhîputra, 17. Sâlankâyanîputra, 18. Vârshaganîputra, 19. Gautamîputra, 20. Âtreyîputra, 21. Gautamîputra, 22. Vâtsîputra, 23. Bhâradvâgîputra, 24. Pârâsarîputra, 25. Vârkârunîputra; then from No. 20 as in the Kânva text.

This stem is called by Sankara, Samastapravakanavamsah, and Ânandagiri adds, pûrvau vamsau purushaviseshitau, tritîyas tu strîviseshitah, strîprâdhânyât. Dvivedaganga writes, putramanthakarmanah strîsamskârârthatvenoktatvât tatsannidhânâd ayam vamsah strîprâdhânyenokyate.

225:1 M. has only one.

225:2 M. inverts 23 and 24.

225:3 Deest in M.

226:1 Vaidabhritîputra, M.

226:2 Bhâlukîputra, M.

226:3 Kârsakeyîputra after 35 in M.

226:4 They are called suklâni, white or pure, because they are not mixed with Brâhmanas, avyâmisni brâhmanena (doshair asankîrnâni, paurusheyatvadoshadvârâbhâvâd ityarthah). Or they are ayâtayâmâni, unimpaired. Ânandagiri adds, Pragâpatim ârabhya Sâñgîvîputraparyantam (No. 36) Vâgasaneyisâkhâsu sarvâsv eko vamsa ityâha samânam iti. Dvivedaganga says: Vâgisâkhâvakkhinnânâm p. 227 yagushâm Sûryenopadishtatvamavalkyena prâptatvam ka purâneshu prasiddham.

227:1 This last paragraph is wanting in the Mâdhyandina text, but a very similar paragraph occurs in Satapatha-brâhmana X, 6, 5, 9, where, however, Vâtsya comes before Sândilya.

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