Hamro dharma

Upanishad, Kaushîtaki

KAUSHÎTAKI-BRÂHMANA-UPANISHAD.

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KAUSHÎTAKI-UPANISHAD.

FIRST ADHYÂYA.

1. KITRA Gângyâyani 1, forsooth, wishing to perform a sacrifice, chose Âruni (Uddâlaka 2, to be his chief priest). But Âruni sent his son, Svetaketu, and said: ‘Perform the sacrifice for him.’ When Svetaketu 3 had arrived, Kitra asked him: ‘Son of Gautama 4, is there a hidden place in the world where you are able to place me, or is it the other way, and are you going to place me in the world to which it (that other way) leads 5?’

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He answered and said: ‘I do not know this. But, let me ask the master.’ Having approached his father, he asked: ‘Thus has Kitra asked me; how shall I answer?’

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Âruni said: ‘I also do not know this. Only after having learnt the proper portion of the Veda in Kitra’s own dwelling, shall we obtain what others give us (knowledge). Come, we will both go.’

Having said this he took fuel in his hand (like a pupil), and approached Kitra Gângyâyani, saying: ‘May I come near to you?’ He replied: ‘You are worthy of Brahman 1, O Gautama, because you were not led away by pride. Come hither, I shall make you know clearly.’

2. And Kitra said: All who depart from this world (or this body) go to the moon 2. In the former, (the bright) half, the moon delights in their spirits; in the other, (the dark) half, the moon sends them on

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to be born again 1. Verily, the moon is the door of the Svarga world (the heavenly world). Now, if a man objects to the moon (if one is not satisfied with life there) the moon sets him free 2. But if a man does not object, then the moon sends him down as rain upon this earth. And according to his deeds and according to his knowledge he is born again here as a worm, or as an insect, or as a fish, or as a bird, or as a lion, or as a boar, or as a serpent 3, or as a tiger, or as a man, or as something else in different places 4. When he has thus returned to the earth, some one (a sage) asks: ‘Who art thou?’ And he should answer: ‘From the wise moon, who orders the seasons 5, when it is born consisting of fifteen parts, from the moon who is the home of our ancestors, the seed was brought. This seed, even me, they (the gods mentioned in the Pañkâgnividyâ 6) gathered up in an active man, and through an active

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man they brought me to a mother. Then I, growing up to be born, a being living by months, whether twelve or thirteen, was together with my father, who also lived by (years of) twelve or thirteen months, that I might either know it (the true Brahman) or not know it. Therefore, O ye seasons 1, grant that I may attain immortality (knowledge of Brahman). By this my true saying, by this my toil (beginning with the dwelling in the moon and ending with my birth on earth) I am (like) a season, and the child of the seasons.’ ‘Who art thou?’ the sage asks again. ‘I am thou,’ he replies. Then he sets him free 2 (to proceed onward).

He (at the time of death), having reached the path of the gods, comes to the world of Agni (fire), to the world of Vâyu (air), to the world of Varuna, to the world of Indra, to the world of Pragâpati (Virâg), to the world of Brahman (Hiranyagarbha). In that world there is the lake Âra 3, the moments called Yeshtiha 4, the river Vigarâ (age-less), the tree Ilya 5, the city Sâlagya, the palace Aparâgita (unconquerable), the door-keepers Indra

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and Pragâpati, the hall of Brahman, called Vibhu 1 (built by vibhu, egoism), the throne Vikakshanâ (buddhi, perception), the couch Amitaugas (endless splendour), and the beloved Mânasî (mind) and her image Kâkshushî (eye), who, as if taking flowers, are weaving the worlds, and the Apsaras, the Ambâs (sruti, sacred scriptures), and Ambâyavîs (buddhi, understanding), and the rivers Ambayâs (leading to the knowledge of Brahman). To this world he who knows this (who knows the Paryanka-vidyâ) approaches. Brahman says to him: ‘Run towards him (servants) with such worship as is due to myself. He has reached the river Vigarâ (age-less), he will never age.

4. Then five hundred Apsaras go towards him, one hundred with garlands in their hands, one hundred with ointments in their hands, one hundred with perfumes in their hands, one hundred with garments in their hands, one hundred with fruit 2 in their hands. They adorn him with an adornment worthy of Brahman, and when thus adorned with the adornment of Brahman, the knower of Brahman moves towards Brahman (neut.) 3 He comes to the lake Âra, and he crosses it by the mind, while those who come to it without knowing the truth 4, are drowned. He comes to the moments called Yeshtiha, they flee from him.

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He comes to the river Vigarâ, and crosses it by the mind alone, and there shakes off his good and evil deeds. His beloved relatives obtain the good, his unbeloved relatives the evil he has done. And as a man, driving in a chariot, might look at the two wheels (without being touched by them), thus he will look at day and night, thus at good and evil deeds, and at all pairs (at all correlative things, such as light and darkness, heat and cold, &c.) Being freed from good and freed from evil he, the knower of Brahman (neut.), moves towards Brahman.

5. He approaches the tree Ilya, and the odour of Brahman reaches him. He approaches the city Sâlagya, and the flavour of Brahman reaches him. He approaches the palace Aparâgita, and the splendour of Brahman reaches him. He approaches the door-keepers Indra and Pragâpati, and they run away from him. He approaches the hall Vibhu, and the glory of Brahman reaches him (he thinks, I am Brahman). He approaches the throne Vikakshanâ. The Sâman verses, Brihad and Rathantara, are the eastern feet of that throne 1; the Sâman verses, Syaita and Naudhasa, its western feet; the Sâman verses, Vairûpa and Vairâga, its sides lengthways (south and north); the Sâman verses, Sâkvara and Raivata, its sides crossways (east and west). That throne is Pragñâ, knowledge, for by knowledge (self-knowledge) he sees clearly. He approaches the couch Amitaugas. That is Prâna (speech). The past and the future are its eastern feet; prosperity and earth its western feet; the Sâman verses, Brihad and Rathantara, are the two sides lengthways of the couch (south and north);

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the Sâman verses, Bhadra and Yagñâyagñîya, are its cross-sides at the head and feet (east and west); the Rik and Sâman are the long sheets 1 (east and west); the Yagus the cross-sheets (south and north); the moon-beam the cushion; the Udgîtha the (white) coverlet; prosperity the pillow 2. On this couch sits Brahman, and he who knows this (who knows himself one with Brahman sitting on the couch) mounts it first with one foot only. Then Brahman says to him: ‘Who art thou?’ and he shall answer:

6. ‘I am (like) a season, and the child of the seasons, sprung from the womb of endless space, from the light (from the luminous Brahman). The light, the origin of the year, which is the past, which is the present, which is all living things, and all elements, is the Self 3. Thou art the Self. What thou art, that am U

Brahman says to him: ‘Who am I?’ He shall answer: ‘That which is, the true’ (Sat-tyam).

Brahman asks: ‘What is the true?’ He says to him: ‘What is different from the gods and from the senses (prâna) that is Sat, but the gods and the

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senses are Tyam. Therefore by that name Sattya (true) is called all this whatever there is. All this thou art.’

7. This is also declared by a verse: ‘This great Rishi, whose belly is the Yagus, the head the Sâman, the form the Rik, is to be known as being imperishable, as being Brahman.’

Brahman says to him: ‘How dost thou obtain my male names?’ He should answer: ‘By breath (prânah).’

Brahman asks: ‘How my female names?’ He should answer: ‘By speech (vâk).’

Brahman asks: ‘How my neuter names?’ He should answer: ‘By mind (manas).’

‘How smells?’ ‘By the nose.’ ‘How forms?’ ‘By the eye.’ ‘How sounds?’ ‘By the ear.’ ‘How flavours of food?’ ‘By the tongue.’ ‘How actions?’ ‘By the hands.’ ‘How pleasures and pain?’ ‘By the body.’ ‘How joy, delight, and offspring?’ ‘By the organ.’ ‘How journeyings?’ ‘By the feet.’ ‘How thoughts, and what is to be known and desired?’ ‘By knowledge (pragñâ) alone.’

Brahman says to him: ‘Water indeed is this my world 1, the whole Brahman world, and it is thine.’

Whatever victory, whatever might belongs to Brahman, that victory and that might he obtains who knows this, yea, who knows this 2.


Footnotes

271:1 It is difficult to determine whether Kitra’s name was Gângyâyani or Gârgyâyani. Professor Weber adopted first Gârgyâyani (Indische Studien 1, P. 395), afterwards Gângyâyani (ibid. II, 395). Professor Cowell adopts Gângyâyani, but he tells us that the Telugu MS. reads Gârgyâyani throughout, and the other MSS. B, C do so occasionally. The commentator explains Gângyâyani as the descendant (yuvâpatyam) of Gângya. I confess a preference for Gârgyâyani, because both Gangâ and Gângya are names of rare occurrence in ancient Vedic literature, but I admit that for that very reason the transition of Gângyâyani into Gârgyâyani is perhaps more intelligible than that of Gârgyâyani into Gângyâyani.

271:2 Cf. Kh. Up. V, 11, 2; Brih. Âr. VI, 2, 1.

271:3 Cf. Kh. Up. V, 3; VI, 1.

271:4 Brih. Âr. VI, 2, 4.

271:5 The question put by Kitra to Svetaketu is very obscure, and was probably from the first intended to be obscure in its very wording. What Kitra wished to ask we can gather from other passages in the Upanishads, where we see another royal sage, Pravâhana Gaivali (Kh. Up. V, 3; Brih. Âr. VI, 2), enlightening Svetaketu on the future life. That future life is reached by two roads; p. 272 one, the Devapatha, leading to the world of Brahman (the conditioned), beyond which there lies one other stage only, represented by knowledge of and identity with the unconditioned Brahman; the other leading to the world of the fathers, and from thence, after the reward of good works has been consumed, back to a new round of mundane existence. There is a third road for creatures which live and die, worms, insects, and creeping things, but they are of little consequence. Now it is quite clear that the knowledge which king Kitra possesses, and which Svetaketu does not possess, is that of the two roads after death, sometimes called the right and the left, or the southern and northern roads. These roads are fully described in the Khândogya-upanishad and in the Brihad-âranyaka, with certain variations, yet on the whole with the same purpose. The northern or left road, called also the path of the Devas, passes on from light and day to the bright half of the moon; the southern or right road, called also the path of the fathers, passes on from smoke and night to the dark half of the moon. Both roads therefore meet in the moon, but diverge afterwards. While the northern road passes by the six months when the sun moves towards the north, through the sun, (moon,) and the lightning to the world of Brahman, the southern passes by the six months when the sun moves towards the south, to the world of the fathers, the ether, and the moon. The great difference, however, between the two roads is, that while those who travel on the former do not return again to a new life on earth, but reach in the end a true knowledge of the unconditioned Brahman, those who pass on to the world of the fathers and the moon return to earth to be born again and again.

The question therefore which Kitra addresses to Svetaketu can refer to these two roads only, and though the text is very corrupt, and was so evidently even at the time when the commentary was written, we must try to restore it in accordance with the teaching imparted by Kitra in what follows. I propose to read: Gautamasya putra, asti samvritam loke yasmin mâ dhâsyasy anyatamo vâdhvâ tasya (or yasya) mâ loke dhâsyasi, ‘Is there a hidden place in the world where you (by your sacrificing and teaching) are able to p. 273 place me, or is it the other way, and will you place me in the world to which it leads?’ Even thus the text is by no means satisfactory, but it is better than anyam aho vâdhvâ, adopted by the commentator and explained by him: Is there a hidden place in that world in which you will place me as another, i. e. as different from the whole world or identical with the whole world, and, if as different, then having bound me (vâdhvâ = baddhvâ) and made me a different person? We may read anyataro for anyatamo vâdhvâ. The commentator sums up the question as referring to a hidden or not hidden place, where Kitra should be placed as another person or not another person, as bound or not bound; or, as Professor Cowell renders it, ‘O son of Gautama, is there any secret place in the world where thou canst set me unconnected, having fixed me there (as wood united with glue); or is there some other place where thou canst set me?’ The speculations on the fate of the soul after death seem to have been peculiar to the royal families of India, while the Brahmans dwelt more on what may be called the shorter cut, a knowledge of Brahman as the true Self. To know, with them, was to be, and, after the dissolution of the body, they looked forward to immediate emancipation, without any further wanderings.

273:1 Worthy to know Brahman, or, as the commentator, who reads brahmârgha, thinks, to be honoured like Brahman.

273:2 Both roads lead to the moon, and diverge afterwards.

274:1 I should like to read aparapakshe praganayati, instead of aparapakshena, or aparapakshe na. The negative is out of the question, for praganayati, he sends into a new life, is exactly what the moon does to those who do not proceed on the Devapatha to the Brahmaloka. Therefore if the reading aparapakshena must be retained, it should be rendered by ‘the moon with the dark half sends them into a new life.’

274:2 This is supposed to be the hidden place, or rather the way to it, when the departed leave the moon, and pass on to lightning and to the world of Brahman. This is in fact the Devayâna, as opposed to the Pitriyâna, described in the Khândogya-upanishad.

274:3 Parasvâ, dandasûkaviseshah. There is no authority for translating it by dog; cf. Indische Studien I, 396.

274:4 This might even include naraka or hell.

274:5 If ritavah is here the genitive of ritu, its meaning would be the ordainer of the seasons; cf. Hibbert Lectures, p. 247. Vikakshana is applied to the moon again, II, 9, and the throne of Brahman also is called vikakshana, I, 3.

274:6 Kh. Up. V, 4-8.

275:1 The commentator takes ritavah as an accusative. I take it as a vocative, and as used in a sense analogous to the Zend ratu, an epithet of Ahura. Darmesteter, Ormazd, p. 12, n. 3.

275:2 If a person fears heaven (svarga) as much as hell, because neither gives final liberation, then he is fit to proceed to a knowledge of Brahman. It would seem that after this, this person is in the same position as the other who, objecting to remain in the moon, was set free at once.

275:3 Consisting of ari’s, enemies, such as love, anger, &c. In the Kh. Up. VIII, 5, 3, it is called Ara.

275:4 Explained to mean, killing the sacrifice, which consists in a desire for Brahman.

275:5 The same as the asvatthah somasavanah in Kh. Up. VIII, 5, 3

276:1 Vibhunâmakam pramitam sabhâsthalam.

276:2 Some MSS. read phanahastâh, and the commentator explains phana by âbharana.

276:3 Though brahman is used here as a neuter, it refers to the conditioned Brahman.

276:4 Samprativid is here explained as brahmavidyâsûnya, ignorant, while in other places (Ait. Âr. II, 3, 1) it stands for samyagabhigña. If the latter is the true meaning, we might read here tam itvâsamprativido.

277:1 Cf. Atharva-veda XV; Aufrecht, in Indische Studien I, p. 122.

278:1 Sheets or coverings seem more applicable here than mere threads forming the woof and warp; cf. Aufrecht, Indische Studien I, p. 131.

278:2 I read udgîtha upash, srir upabarhanam. The Atharva text has udgîtho ‘pasrayah.

278:3 This passage is corrupt, and the various readings and various interpretations of the commentators do not help us much. One view, which I have followed, as far as possible, is that it had to be explained how the same being could be the child of the seasons, or living from year to year, and, at the same time, born of the light. The answer is, Because light is the seed or cause of the year, and the year the cause of everything else. I take no responsibility for this view, and I see no way of discovering the original reading and the original meaning of these sentences.

279:1 it sprang from water and the other elements. Comm. Professor Weber proposes to translate âpah by Erlangungen, acquisitions, with reference to apnoshi, ‘how dost thou acquire my names?’ in what precedes.

279:2 Who knows the conditioned and mythological form of Brahman as here described, sitting on the couch.

SECOND ADHYÂYA.

1. Prâna (breath) 1 is Brahman, thus says Kaushîtaki. Of this prâna, which is Brahman, the mind (manas) is the messenger, speech the housekeeper, the eye the guard, the ear the informant. He who knows mind as the messenger of prâna, which is Brahman, becomes possessed of the messenger. He who knows speech as the housekeeper, becomes possessed of the housekeeper. He who knows the eye as the guard, becomes possessed of the guard. He who knows the ear as the informant, becomes possessed of the informant.

Now to that prâna, which is Brahman, all these deities (mind, speech, eye, ear) bring an offering, though he asks not for it, and thus to him who knows this all creatures bring an offering, though he asks not for it. For him who knows this, there is this Upanishad (secret vow), ‘Beg not!’ As a man who has begged through a village and got nothing sits down and says, ‘I shall never eat anything given by those people,’ and as then those who formerly refused him press him (to accept their alms), thus is the rule for him who begs not, but the charitable will press him and say, ‘Let us give to thee.’

2. Prâna (breath) is Brahman, thus says Paingya. And in that prâna, which is Brahman, the eye

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stands firm behind speech, the ear stands firm behind the eye, the mind stands firm behind the car, and the spirit stands firm behind the mind 1. To that prâna, which is Brahman, all these deities bring an offering, though he asks not for it, and thus to him who knows this, all creatures bring an offering, though he asks not for it. For him who knows this, there is this Upanishad (secret vow), ‘Beg not!’ As a man who has begged through a village and got nothing sits down and says, ‘I shall never eat anything given by those people,’ and as then those who formerly refused him press him (to accept their alms), thus is the rule for him who begs not, but the charitable will press him and say, ‘Let us give to thee.’

3. Now follows the attainment of the highest treasure (scil. prâna, spirit 2). If a man meditates on that highest treasure, let him on a full moon or a new moon, or in the bright fortnight, under an auspicious Nakshatra, at one of these proper times, bending his right knee, offer oblations of ghee with a ladle (sruva), after having placed the fire, swept the ground 3, strewn the sacred grass, and sprinkled water. Let him say: ‘The deity called Speech is

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the attainer, may it attain this for me from him (who possesses and can bestow what I wish for). Svâhâ to it!’

‘The deity called prâna (breath) is the attainer, may it attain this for me from him. Svâhâ to it!’

‘The deity called the eye is the attainer, may it attain this for me from him. Svâhâ to it!’

‘The deity called the car is the attainer, may it attain this for me from him. Svâhâ to it!’

‘The deity called mind (manas) is the attainer of it, may it attain this for me from him. Svâhâ to it.’

‘The deity called pragñâ (knowledge) is the attainer of it, may it attain this for me from him. Svâhâ to it!’

Then having inhaled the smell of the smoke, and having rubbed his limbs with the ointment of ghee, walking on in silence, let him declare his wish, or let him send a messenger. He will surely obtain his wish.

4. Now follows the Daiva Smara, the desire to be accomplished by the gods. If a man desires to become dear 1 to any man or woman, or to any men or women, then at one of the (fore-mentioned) proper times he offers, in exactly the same manner (as before), oblations of ghee, saying: ‘I offer thy speech in myself, I (this one here 2), Svâhâ.’ ‘I offer thy ear in myself, I (this one here), Svâhâ.’ ‘I offer thy

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mind in myself, I (this one here), Svâhâ.’ ‘I offer thy pragñâ (knowledge) in myself, I (this one here), Svâhâ.’ Then having inhaled the smell of the smoke, and having rubbed his limbs with the ointment of. ghee, walking on in silence, let him try to come in contact or let him stand speaking in the wind, (so that the wind may carry his words to the person by whom he desires to be loved). Surely he becomes dear, and they think of him.

5. Now follows the restraint (samyamana) instituted by Pratardana (the son of Divodâsa): they call it the inner Agni-hotra. So long as a man speaks, he cannot breathe, he offers all the while his prâna (breath) in his speech. And so long as a man breathes, he cannot speak, he offers all the while his speech in his breath. These two endless and immortal oblations he offers always, whether waking or sleeping. Whatever other oblations there are (those, e. g. of the ordinary Agnihotra, consisting of milk and other things), they have an end, for they consist of works (which, like all works, have an end). The ancients, knowing this (the best Agnihotra), did not offer the (ordinary) Agnihotra.

6. Uktha 1 is Brahman, thus said Sushkabhringâra. Let him meditate on it (the uktha) as the same with the Rik, and all beings will praise him as the best. Let him meditate on it as the same with the Yagus, and all beings will join before him

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as the best. Let him meditate on it as the same with the Sâman, and all beings will bow before him as the best 1. Let him meditate on it as the same with might, let him meditate on it as the same with glory, let him meditate on it as the same with splendour. For as the bow is among weapons the mightiest, the most glorious, the most splendid, thus is he who knows this among all beings the mightiest, the most glorious, the most splendid. The Adhvaryu conceives the fire of the altar, which is used for the sacrifice, to be himself. In it he (the Adhvaryu) weaves the Yagus portion of the sacrifice. And in the Yagus portion the Hotri weaves the Rik portion of the sacrifice. And in the Rik portion the Udgâtri weaves the Sâman portion of the sacrifice. He (the Adhvaryu or prâna) is the self of the threefold knowledge; he indeed is the self of it (of prâna). He who knows this is the self of it (becomes prân2).

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7. Next follow the three kinds of meditation of the all-conquering (sarvagit) Kaushîtaki. The all-conquering Kaushîtaki adores the sun when rising, having put on the sacrificial cord 1, having brought water, and having thrice sprinkled the water-cup, saying: ‘Thou art the deliverer, deliver me from sin.’ In the same manner he adores the sun when in the zenith, saying: ‘Thou art the highest deliverer, deliver me highly from sin.’ In the same manner he adores the sun when setting, saying: ‘Thou art the full deliverer, deliver me fully from sin.’ Thus he fully removes whatever sin he committed by day and by night. And in the same manner he who knows this, likewise adores the sun, and fully removes whatever sin he committed by day and by night.

8. Then (secondly) let him worship every month (in the year) at the time of the new moon, the moon as it is seen in the west in the same manner (as before described with regard to the sun), or let him send forth his speech toward the moon with two green blades of grass, saying: ‘O thou who art mistress of immortal joy, through that gentle heart of mine which abides in the moon, may I never weep for misfortune concerning my children.’

The children of him (who thus adores the moon) do not indeed die before him. Thus it is with a man to whom a son is already born.

Now for one to whom no son is born as yet. He mutters the three Rik verses. ‘Increase, O Soma! may vigour come to thee’ (Rv. I, 91, 16; IX, 31, 4).

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‘May milk, may food go to thee’ (Rv. I, 91, 18); ‘That ray which the Âdityas gladden.’

Having muttered these three Rik verses, he says: ‘Do not increase by our breath (prâna), by our offspring, by our cattle; he who hates us and whom we hate, increase by his breath, by his offspring, by his cattle. Thus I turn the turn of the god, I return the turn of Âditya 1.’ After these words, having raised the right arm (toward Soma), he lets it go again 2.

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9. Then (thirdly) let him worship on the day of the full moon the moon as it is seen in the east in the same manner, saying: ‘Thou art Soma, the king, the wise, the five-mouthed, the lord of creatures. The Brâhmana is one of thy mouths; with that mouth thou eatest the kings (Kshatriyas); make me an eater of food by that mouth! The king is one of thy mouths; with that mouth thou eatest the people (Vaisyas); make me an eater of food by that mouth! The hawk is one of thy mouths; with that mouth thou eatest the birds; make me an eater of food by that mouth! Fire is one of thy mouths; with that mouth thou eatest this world; make me an eater of food by that mouth! In thee there is the fifth mouth; with that mouth thou eatest all beings; make me an eater of food by that mouth! Do not decrease by our life, by our offspring, by our cattle; he who hates us and whom we hate, decrease by his life, by his offspring, by his cattle. Thus I turn the turn of the god, I return the turn of Âditya.’ After these words, having raised the right arm, he lets it go again.

10. Next (having addressed these prayers to Soma) when being with his wife, let him stroke her

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heart, saying: ‘O fair one, who hast obtained immortal joy by that which has entered thy heart through Pragâpati, mayest thou never fall into sorrow about thy children 1.’ Her children then do not die before her.

11. Next, if a man has been absent and returns home, let him smell (kiss) his son’s head, saying: ‘Thou springest from every limb, thou art born from the heart, thou, my son, art my self indeed, live thou a hundred harvests.’ He gives him his name, saying: ‘Be thou a stone, be thou an axe, be thou solid 2 gold; thou, my son, art light indeed, live thou a hundred harvests.’ He pronounces his name. Then he embraces him, saying: ‘As Pragâpati (the lord of creatures) embraced his creatures for their welfare, thus I embrace thee,’ (pronouncing his name.) Then he mutters into his right ear, saying: ‘O thou, quick Maghavan, give to him’ (Rv. III, 36, 10 3). ‘O Indra, bestow the best wishes’ (Rv. II, 21, 6), thus he whispers into his left ear. Let him then thrice smell (kiss) his head, saying: ‘Do not cut off (the line of our race), do not suffer. Live a hundred harvests of life; I kiss thy head, O son, with thy name.’ He then thrice makes a lowing sound over his head, saying: ‘I low over thee with the lowing sound of cows.’

12. Next follows the Daiva Parimara 4, the dying around of the gods (the absorption of the two

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classes of gods, mentioned before, into prâna or Brahman). This Brahman shines forth indeed when the fire burns, and it dies when it burns not. Its splendour goes to the sun alone, the life (prâna, the moving principle) to the air.

This Brahman shines forth indeed when the sun is seen, and it dies when it is not seen. Its splendour goes to the moon alone, the life (prâna) to the air.

This Brahman shines forth indeed when the moon is seen, and it dies when it is not seen. Its splendour goes to the lightning alone, its life (prâna) to the air.

This Brahman shines forth indeed when the lightning flashes, and it dies when it flashes not. Its splendour goes to the air, and the life (prâna) to the air.

Thus all these deities (i. e. fire, sun, moon, lightning), having entered the air, though dead, do not vanish; and out of the very air they rise again. So much with reference to the deities (mythological). Now then with reference to the body (physiological).

13. This Brahman shines forth indeed when one speaks with speech, and it dies when one does not speak. His splendour goes to the eye alone, the life (prâna) to breath (prâna).

This Brahman shines forth indeed when one sees with the eye, and it dies when one does not see. Its splendour goes to the ear alone, the life (prâna) to breath (prâna).

This Brahman shines forth indeed when one hears with the ear, and it dies when one does not hear. Its splendour goes to the mind alone, the life (prâna) to breath (prâna).

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This Brahman shines forth indeed when one thinks with the mind, and it dies when one does not think. Its splendour goes to the breath (prâna) alone, and the life (prâna) to breath (prâna).

Thus all these deities (the senses, &c.), having entered breath or life (prâna) alone, though dead, do not vanish; and out of very breath (prâna) they rise again. And if two mountains, the southern and northern, were to move forward trying to crush him who knows this, they would not crush him. But those who hate him and those whom he hates, they die around him.

14. Next follows the Nihsreyasâdâna 1 (the accepting of the pre-eminence of prâna (breath or life) by the other gods). The deities (speech, eye, ear, mind), contending with each for who was the best, went out of this body, and the body lay without breathing, withered, like a log of wood. Then speech went into it, but speaking by speech, it lay still. Then the eye went into it, but speaking by speech, and seeing by the eye, it lay still. Then the ear went into it, but speaking by speech, seeing by the eye, hearing by the car, it lay still. Then mind went into it, but speaking by speech, seeing by the eye, hearing by the ear, thinking by the mind, it lay still. Then breath (prâna, life) went into it, and thence it rose at once. All these deities, having recognised the pre-eminence in prâna, and having comprehended prâna alone as the conscious self (pragñâtman) 2, went out of this body with all these (five different kinds of

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prâna), and resting in the air (knowing that prâna had entered the air), and merged in the ether (âkâsa), they went to heaven. And in the same manner he who knows this, having recognised the pre-eminence in prâna, and having comprehended prâna alone as the conscious self (pragñâtman), goes out of this body with all these (does no longer believe in this body), and resting in the air, and merged in the ether, he goes to heaven, he goes to where those gods (speech, &c.) are. And having reached this he, who knows this, becomes immortal with that immortality which those gods enjoy.

15. Next follows the father’s tradition to the son, and thus they explain it 1. The father, when going to depart, calls his son, after having strewn the house with fresh grass, and having laid the sacrificial fire, and having placed near it a pot of water with a jug (full of rice), himself covered with a new cloth, and dressed in white. He places himself above his son, touching his organs with his own organs, or he may deliver the tradition to him while he sits before him. Then he delivers it to him. The father says: ‘Let me place my speech in thee.’ The son says: ‘I take thy speech in me.’ The father says: ‘Let me place my scent (prâna) in thee.’ The son says: ‘I take thy scent in me.’ The father says: ‘Let me place my eye in thee.’ The son says: ‘I take thy eye in me.’ The father says: ‘Let me place my ear in thee.’ The son says: ‘I take thy ear in me.’ The father says: ‘Let me place my tastes of food in thee.’ The son says: ‘I take thy tastes of food in me.’ The father says: ‘Let me place my actions

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in thee! The son says: ‘I take thy actions in me.’ The father says: ‘Let me place my pleasure and pain in thee.’ The son says: ‘I take thy pleasure and pain in me.’ The father says: ‘Let me place happiness, joy, and offspring in thee.’ The son says: ‘I take thy happiness, joy, and offspring in me.’ The father says: ‘Let me place my walking in thee.’ The son says: ‘I take thy walking in me 1.’ The father says: ‘Let me place my mind in thee.’ The son says: ‘I take thy mind in me.’ The father says: ‘Let me place my knowledge (pragñâ) in thee.’ The son says: ‘I take thy knowledge in me.’ But if the father is very ill, he may say shortly: ‘Let me place my spirits (prânas) in thee,’ and the son: ‘I take thy spirits in me.’

Then the son walks round his father keeping his right side towards him, and goes away. The father calls after him: ‘May fame, glory of countenance, and honour always follow thee.’ Then the other looks back over his left shoulder, covering himself with his hand or the hem of his garment, saying: ‘Obtain the heavenly worlds (svarga) and all desires.’

If the father recovers, let him be under the authority of his son, or let him wander about (as an ascetic). But if he departs, then let them despatch him, as he ought to be despatched, yea, as he ought to be despatched 2.


Footnotes

280:1 In the first chapter it was said, ‘He approaches the couch Amitaugas, that is prâna, breath, spirit, life. Therefore having explained in the first adhyâya the knowledge of the couch (of Brahman), the next subject to be explained is the knowledge of prâna, the living spirit, taken for a time as Brahman, or the last cause of everything.’

281:1 I translate vâkparastât, kakshuhparastât, manahparastât as compounds, and read srotraparastât. The commentator requires this. He says that speech is uncertain, and has to be checked by the eye. The eye is uncertain, taking mother of pearl for silver, and must be checked by the ear. The ear is uncertain, and must be checked by the mind, for unless the mind is attentive, the ear hears not. The mind, lastly, depends on the spirit, for without spirit there is no mind. The commentator is right in reading rundhe or runddhe instead of rundhate.

281:2 The vital spirits are called the highest treasure, because a man surrenders everything to preserve his vital spirits or his life.

281:3 Cf. Brih. Âr. VI, 3, 1.

282:1 As dear as prâna or life.

282:2 The commentator explains these mysterious utterances by: I offer, I throw, in the fire, which is lit by the fuel of thy indifference or dislike, in myself, being the object of thy love, speech, the organ of speech, of thee, who art going to love me. This one, i. e. I myself, or my love, may prosper. Svâhâ, my speech, may grant approval to the oblation of me, the lover.’

283:1 Uktha, a Vedic hymn, has been identified with prâna, breath, in the Kânva, and other Sâkhâs (Brih. Âr. V, 13, 1; Ait. Âr. II, 1, 2). Here uktha, i. e. the prâna of the uktha, is further identified with Brahman. As uktha (the hymn) is prâna, and as the sacrifice is performed with hymns, the sacrifice, too, is uktha, and therefore prâna, and therefore Brahman. Comm.

284:1 The verbs ark, yug, and sannam are not used idiomatically, but with reference to the words rik, yagus, and sâman.

284:2 The commentator explains this somewhat differently. He takes it to be the object of the last paragraph to show that the Prâna-vidyâ can ultimately produce final liberation, and not only temporal rewards. The Adhvaryu priest, he says, takes what is called uktha, and has been identified with Rik, Yagus, and Sâman hymns, all contained in the mouth, as being outwardly the sacrificial fire of the altar, because that fire cannot be lighted without such hymns. Thus the self of the Adhvaryu priest becomes identified, not only with the uktha, the hymns, but also with the sacrificial fire, and he meditates on himself as fire, as hymn (uktha), and as breath (prâna). I read sa esha sarvasyai trayyai vidyâyâ âtmâ, esha u evâsyâtmâ. Etadâtmâ bhavati ya evam veda. But if we read asyâtmâ, we cannot with the commentator explain it by asya uktâyâs trayyâ âtmâ, but must refer asya to prâna, breath, life, which is here to be identified with Brahman.

285:1 This is one of the earliest, if not the earliest mention of the yagñopavîta, the sacred cord as worn over the left shoulder for sacrificial purposes; cf. Taitt. Brâhm. III, 10, 19, 12.

286:1 This refers to movements of the arm, following the moon and the sun.

286:2 It is extremely difficult to translate the Vedic verses which are quoted in the Upanishads. They are sometimes slightly changed on purpose (see §11), frequently turned from their original purport by the authors of the Upanishads themselves, and then again subjected to the most fanciful interpretations by the various commentators on the Upanishads. In our paragraph (§ 8) the text followed by the commentator differs from the printed text. The commentator seems to have read: Yat te susîmam hridayam adhi kandramasi sritam, tenâmritatvasyesâne mâham pautram agham rudam. I have translated according to the commentator, at least up to a certain point, for, as Professor Cowell remarks, there is an undercurrent in the commentator’s explanation, implying a comparison between the husband as the sun or fire, and the wife as the moon, which it would be difficult to render in an English translation. The same or a very similar verse occurs in § 10, while other modifications of it may be seen in Âsval. Grihya-sûtras I, 13, 7, and elsewhere. The translation of the verses in full, of three of which the Upanishad gives the beginnings only, would be according to the commentator: ‘(O goddess of the moon) who hast obtained immortal joy through that which is a beautiful (portion of the sun) placed in the moon, and filling thy heart (with pleasure), may I never weep for misfortune concerning my children.’

Rv. I, 91, 16; IX, 31, 4. ‘O goddess of the moon, increase! may the vigour from everywhere (from every limb of the fire or the sun) go to thee! Help us in the attainment of food.’ Rv. I, 91, 18. ‘O goddess of the moon, may the streams of thy milk go well to our sons, those streams of milk which are invigorating, and p. 287 help to conquer the enemy. O Soma-goddess, increasing for immortal happiness (for the birth of a son), do thou place the highest glory (the streams of thy milk) in the sky.’ ‘That ray (sushumnâ) which (as a woman) the Âdityas gladden, that Soma which as imperishable the imperishable Âdityas drink, may the guardian of the world (Pragâpati), Brihaspati, and king Varuna gladden us by it.’

The translations are made by the commentator regardless of grammar and sense: yet they command a certain authority, and must be taken into account as throwing light on the latest development of Indian mysticism.

288:1 Cf. Âsvalâyana Grihya-sûtras I, 13, 7.

288:2 Widely scattered, everywhere desired. Comm. Professor Cowell proposes unscattered, hoarded, or unconcealed.

288:3 The original has asme, to us, not asmai, to him.

288:4 Cf. Taitt. Up. III, 10, 4; Ait. Brâhm. V, 28; Colebrooke, Miscellaneous Essays (1873), II, p. 39.

290:1 For other versions of this story see Kh. Up. V, 1, note 2; Ait. Âr. II, 1, 4, 9; Brih. Âr. VI, 1, 1-14; and Kaush. Up. III, 3.

290:2 Cf. Kh. Up. VII, 15, note.

291:1 Cf. Brihad-âranyaka I, 5,17.

292:1 Another sâkhâ adds here dhiyah, the thoughts (active), vigñâtavyam, their object, and kâmâh, desires.

292:2 I have taken samâpayati in the sense of performing the last duties towards a dead person, though I confess I know of no parallel passage in which samâpayati occurs in that sense. Professor Cowell translates: ‘If he dies, then let them cause the son duly to receive the tradition, as the tradition is to be given.’ The text itself varies, for the reading presupposed by the commentator is enam (putram) samâpayati, instead of enam samâpayeyuh.

THIRD ADHYÂYA 1.

1. Pratardana, forsooth, the son of Divodâsa (king of Kâsî), came by means of fighting and strength to the beloved abode of Indra. Indra said to him ‘Pratardana, let me give you a boon to choose.’ And Pratardana answered: ‘Do you yourself choose that boon for me which you deem most beneficial for a man.’ Indra said to him: ‘No one who chooses, chooses for another; choose thyself,’ Then Pratardana replied: ‘Then that boon to choose is no boon for me.’

Then, however, Indra did not swerve from the truth, for Indra is truth. Indra said to him: ‘Know me only; that is what I deem most beneficial for man, that he should know me. I slew the three-headed son of Tvashtri; I delivered the Arunmukhas, the devotees, to the wolves (sâlâvrika); breaking many treaties, I killed the people of Prahlâda in heaven, the people of Puloma in the sky, the people of Kâlakañga on earth 2. And not one hair of me was harmed there. And he who knows me thus, by no deed of his is his life harmed, not by the murder of

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his mother, not by the murder of his father, not by theft, not by the killing of a Brahman. If he is going to commit a sin, the bloom 1 does not depart from his face.’

2. Indra said: ‘I am prâna, meditate on me as the conscious self (pragñâtman), as life, as immortality. Life is prâna, prâna is life. Immortality is prâna, prâna is immortality. As long as prâna dwells in this body, so long surely there is life. By prâna he obtains immortality in the other world, by knowledge true conception. He who meditates on me as life and immortality, gains his full life in this world, and obtains in the Svarga world immortality and indestructibility.’

(Pratardana said): ‘Some maintain here, that the prânas become one, for (otherwise) no one could at the same time make known a name by speech, see a form with the eye, hear a sound with the car, think a thought with the mind. After having become one, the prânas perceive all these together, one by one. While speech speaks, all prânas speak after it. While the eye sees, all prânas see after it. While the car hears, all prânas hear after it. While the mind thinks, all prânas think after it. While the prâna breathes, all prânas breathe after it.’

‘Thus it is indeed,’ said Indra, ‘but nevertheless there is a pre-eminence among the prânas 2.

3. Man lives deprived of speech, for we see dumb people. Man lives deprived of sight, for we see

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blind people. Man lives deprived of hearing, for we see deaf people. Man lives deprived of mind, for we see infants. Man lives deprived of his arms, deprived of his legs, for we see it thus. But prâna alone is the conscious self (pragñâtman), and having laid hold of this body, it makes it rise up. Therefore it is said, Let man worship it alone as uktha 1. What is prâna, that is pragñâ (self-consciousness); what is pragñâ (self-consciousness), that is prâna, for together they (pragñâ and prâna) live in this body, and together they go out of it. Of that, this is the evidence, this is the understanding. When a man, being thus asleep, sees no dream whatever, he becomes one with that prâna alone 2. Then speech goes to him (when he is absorbed in prâna) with all names, the eye with all forms, the ear with all sounds, the mind with all thoughts. And when he awakes, then, as from a burning fire sparks proceed in all directions, thus from that self the prânâs (speech, &c.) proceed, each towards its place; from the prânas the gods (Agni, &c.), from the gods the worlds.

Of this, this is the proof, this is the understanding. When a man is thus sick, going to die, falling into weakness and faintness, they say: ‘His thought has departed, he hears not, he sees not, he speaks not, he thinks not.’ Then he becomes one with that prâna alone. Then speech goes to him (who is absorbed in prâna) with all names, the eye with all

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forms, the ear with all sounds, the mind with all thoughts. And when he departs from this body, he departs together with all these 1.

4. Speech gives up to him (who is absorbed in prâna) all names, so that by speech he obtains all names. The nose gives up to him all odours, so that by scent he obtains all odours. The eye gives up to him all forms, so that by the eye he obtains all forms. The ear gives up to him all sounds, so that by the ear he obtains all sounds. The mind gives up to him all thoughts, so that by the mind he obtains all thoughts. This is the complete absorption in prâna. And what is prâna is pragñâ (self-consciousness), what is pragñâ (self-consciousness) is prâna. For together do these two live in the body, and together do they depart.

Now we shall explain how all things become one in that pragñâ (self-consciousness).

5. Speech is one portion taken out 2 of pragñâ (self-conscious knowledge), the word is its object, placed outside. The nose is one portion taken out of it, the odour is its object, placed outside. The eye is one portion taken out of it, the form is its object, placed outside. The ear is one portion taken out of it, the sound is its object, placed outside. The tongue is one portion taken out of it, the taste of food is its object, placed outside. The two hands

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are one portion taken out of it, their action is their object, placed outside. The body is one portion taken out of it, its pleasure and pain are its object, placed outside. The organ is one portion taken out of it, happiness, joy, and offspring are its object, placed outside. The two feet are one portion taken out of it, movements are their object, placed outside. Mind is one portion taken out of it, thoughts and desires are its object, placed outside.

6. Having by pragñâ (self-conscious knowledge) taken possession of speech, he obtains by speech all words. Having by pragñâ taken possession of the nose, he obtains all odours. Having by pragñâ taken possession of the eye, he obtains all forms. Having by pragñâ taken possession of the ear, he obtains all sounds. Having by pragñâ taken possession of the tongue, he obtains all tastes of food. Having by pragñâ taken possession of the two hands, he obtains all actions. Having by pragñâ taken possession of the body, he obtains pleasure and pain. Having by pragñâ taken possession of the organ, he obtains happiness, joy, and offspring. Having by pragñâ taken possession of the two feet, he obtains all movements. Having by pragñâ taken possession of mind, he obtains all thoughts.

7. For without pragñâ (self-consciousness) speech does not make known (to the self) any word 1. ‘My

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mind was absent,’ he says, ‘I did not perceive that word.’ Without pragñâ the nose does not make known any odour. ‘My mind was absent,’ he says, ‘I did not perceive that odour.’ Without pragñâ the eye does not make known any form. ‘My mind was absent,’ he says, ‘I did not perceive that form.’ Without pragñâ the ear does not make known any sound. ‘My mind was absent,’ he says, ‘I did not perceive that sound.’ Without pragñâ the tongue does not make known any taste. ‘My mind was absent,’ he says, ‘I did not perceive that taste.’ Without pragñâ the two hands do not make known any act. ‘Our mind was absent,’ they say, ‘we did not perceive any act.’ Without pragñâ the body does not make known pleasure or pain. ‘My mind was absent,’ he says, ‘I did not perceive that pleasure or pain.’ Without pragñâ the organ does not make known happiness, joy, or offspring. ‘My mind was absent,’ he says, ‘I did not perceive that happiness, joy, or offspring.’ Without pragñâ, the two feet do not make known any movement. ‘Our mind was absent,’ they say, ‘we did not perceive that movement.’ Without pragñâ no thought succeeds, nothing can be known that is to be known.

8. Let no man try to find out what speech is, let him know the speaker. Let no man try to find out what odour is, let him know him who smells. Let no man try to find out what form is, let him know the seer. Let no man try to find out what sound is, let

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him know the hearer. Let no man try to find out the tastes of food, let him know the knower of tastes. Let no man try to find out what action is, let him know the agent. Let no man try to find out what pleasure and pain are, let him know the knower of pleasure and pain. Let no man try to find out what happiness, joy, and offspring are, let him know the knower of happiness, joy, and offspring. Let no man try to find out what movement is, let him know the mover. Let no man try to find out what mind is, let him know the thinker. These ten objects (what is spoken, smelled, seen, &c.) have reference to pragñâ (self-consciousness), the ten subjects (speech, the senses, mind) have reference to objects. If there were no objects, there would be no subjects; and if there were no subjects, there would be no objects. For on either side alone nothing could be achieved. But that (the self of pragñâ, consciousness, and prâna, life) is not many, (but one.) For as in a car the circumference of a wheel is placed on the spokes, and the spokes on the nave, thus are these objects (circumference) placed on the subjects (spokes), and the subjects on the prâna. And that prâna (breath, the living and breathing power) indeed is the self of pragñâ (the self-conscious self), blessed, imperishable, immortal. He does not increase by a good action, nor decrease by a bad action. For he (the self of prâna and pragñâ) makes him, whom he wishes to lead up from these worlds, do a good deed; and the same makes him, whom he wishes to lead down from these worlds, do a bad deed 1. And he is the guardian of the world, he is

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the king of the world, he is the lord of the universe,–and he is my (Indra’s) self, thus let it be known, yea, thus let it be known!


Footnotes

293:1 The object now is to explain the true Brahma-vidyâ, while the first and second chapters are only introductory, treating of the worship of the couch (paryankopâsanâ) and of the worship of prâna.

293:2 This refers to heroic deeds performed by Indra, as represented in the hymns of the Rig-veda. See Rig-veda V, 34, 4, and Sâyana’s commentary; Ait. Brâhm. VII, 28. Weber, Indische Studien I, 410-418, has tried to discover an original physical meaning in the heroic deeds ascribed to Indra. A curious remark is made by the commentator, who says that the skulls of the Arunmukhas were turned into the thorns of the desert (karîra) which remain to this day,–a very common phase in popular tradition.

294:1 Professor Cowell compares Taittirîya-Samhitâ III, 1, 1, nâsya nîtam na haro vyeti.

294:2 Prânâs, in the plural, is supposed to stand for the five senses as modifications of breath. It would be better if we could read prânasya nihsreyasam. See before, II, 14.

295:1 Uktha, hymn, is artificially derived from ut-thâpayati, to raise up, and hence uktha, hymn, is to be meditated on as prâna, breath, which likewise raises up the body. See Ait. Âr. II, 1, 15.

295:2 He is absorbed in prâna. Or should it be prânah as nominative?

296:1 According to another reading we might translate, ‘Speech takes away all names from that body; and prâna, in which speech is absorbed, thus obtains all names.’

296:2 I read udûlham or udûdham, instead of adûdham, explained by the commentator as adûduhat. Professor Cowell translates, ‘Speech verily milked one portion thereof,’ which may have been the original purport of the writer.

297:1 Professor Cowell has translated a passage from the commentary which is interesting as showing that its author and the author of the Upanishad too had a clear conception of the correlative nature of knowledge. ‘The organ of sense,’ he says, ‘cannot exist without pragñâ (self-consciousness), nor the objects of sense be obtained without the organ, therefore–on the principle, that when one thing cannot exist without another, that thing is said to be identical with the other–as the cloth, for instance, being p. 298 never perceived without the threads, is identical with them, or the (false perception of) silver being never found without the mother of pearl is identical with it, so the objects of sense being never found without the organs are identical with them, and the organs being never found without pragñâ (self-consciousness) are identical with it.

299:1 The other text says, ‘whom he wishes to draw after him; and whom he wishes to draw away from these worlds.’ Râmatîrtha, in p. 300 his commentary on the Mait. Up. 3, 2, quotes the text as translated above.

FOURTH ADHYÂYA 1

1. There was formerly Gârgya Bâlâki 2, famous as a man of great reading; for it was said of him that he lived among the Usînaras, among the Satvat-Matsyas, the Kuru-Pañkâlas, the Kâsî-Videhas 3. Having gone to Agâtasatru, (the king) of Kâsî, he said to him: ‘Shall I tell you Brahman?’ Agâtasatru said to him: ‘We give a thousand (cows) for that speech (of yours), for verily all people run away, saying, “Ganaka (the king of Mithilâ) is our father (patron).”‘

2. 4 BRIHAD-ÂRANYAKA-UPANISHAD. KAUSHÎTAKI-BRÂHMANA-UPANISHAD.
i. Âditye purushah.
atishthâh sarveshâm bhûtânâm mûrdhâ râgâ.
i. Id.
brihat pândaravâsâ p. 301(nduravâsâ) atishthâh sarveshâm bhûtânâm mûrdhâ.
ii. Kandre purushah.
brihat pândaravâsâh somo râgâ. (Nâsyânnam kshîyate, is the reward.)
ii. Kandramasi.
somo râgâ, annasyâtmâ. Only annasyâtmâ.
iii. Vidyuti purushah tegasvî. iii. Id.
tegasy âtmâ. satyasyâtmâ.

iiib. stanayitnau purushah.
sabdasyâtmâ.

iv. Âkâse purushah.
pûrnam apravarti.
iv. Id. (5)
pûrnam apravarti brahma. apravritti.
v. Vâyau, purushah.
indro vaikuntho ‘parâgitâ senâ.
v. Id. (4)
Id.
vi. Agnau purushah.
vishâsahih.
vi. Id.
Id.
vii. Apsu purushah.
pratirûpah.
vii. Id.
nâmnasyâtmâ. tegusa âtmâ.
viii. Âdarse purushah.
rokishnuh.
viii. Id.
pratirûpah.

viiib. pratisrutkâyâm purushah. (9)
dvitîyo ‘napagah. asuh.

ix. Yantam paskâk khabdah.
asuh.
ix. Yah sabdah purusham anveti. (10) sabde.
Id. mrityuh. p. 302
x. Dikshu purushah.
dvitîyo ‘napagah.
x. Deest.
xi. Khâyâmayah purushah.
mrityuh.
x. Khâyâpurushah. (8b) khâyâyâm.
Id. dvitîyo ‘napagah.
xii. Âtmani purushah.
âtmanvî.
xi. Sârîrah purushah.
(12) sarîre purushah.
pragâpatih.
xii. Yah prâgña âtmâ, yenaitat suptah svapnayâ karati.
Yamo râgâ. (11) purushah svapnayâ karati yamo râgâ.
xiii. Dakshine ‘kshan purushah.
nâmna (ka) âtmâ, agner âtmâ, gyotisha âtmâ.
xiv. Savye ‘kshan purushah.
satyasyâtmâ, vidyuta âtmâ, tegasa âtmâ.

3. Bâlâki said: ‘The person that is in the sun, on him I meditate (as Brahman).’

Agâtasatru said to him: ‘No, no! do not challenge me (to a disputation) on this 1. I meditate on him who is called great, clad in white raiment 2, the supreme, the head of all beings. Whoso meditates

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on him thus, becomes supreme, and the head of all beings.’

4. Bâlâki said: ‘The person that is in the moon, on him I meditate.’

Agâtasatru said to him: ‘Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as Soma, the king, the self, (source) of all food. Whoso meditates on him thus, becomes the self, (source) of all food.’

5. Bâlâki said: ‘The person that is in the lightning, on him I meditate.’

Agâtasatru said to him: ‘Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as the self in light. Whoso meditates on him thus, becomes the self in light.’

6. Bâlâki said: ‘The person that is in the thunder, on him I meditate.’

Agâtasatru said to him: ‘Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as the self of sound 1. Whoso meditates on him thus, becomes the self of sound.’

7. Bâlâki said: ‘The person that is in the ether, on him I meditate.’

Agâtasatru said to him: ‘Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as the full, quiescent Brahman. Whoso meditates on him thus, is filled with offspring and cattle. Neither he himself nor his offspring dies before the time.’

8. Bâlâki said: ‘The person that is in the air, on him I meditate.’

Agâtasatru said to him: ‘Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as Indra Vaikuntha, as the unconquerable army. Whoso meditates on him thus, becomes victorious, unconquerable, conquering his enemies.’

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9. Bâlâki said: ‘The person that is in the fire, on him I meditate.’

Agâtasatru said to him: ‘Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as powerful. Whoso meditates on him thus, becomes powerful among others 1.’

10. Bâlâki said: ‘The person that is in the water, on him I meditate.’

Agâtasatru said to him: ‘Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as the self of the name. Whoso meditates on him thus, becomes the self of the name.’ So far with regard to deities (mythological); now with regard to the body (physiological).

11. Bâlâki said: ‘The person that is in the mirror, on him I meditate.’

Agâtasatru said to him: ‘Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as the likeness. Whoso meditates on him thus, to him a son is born in his family who is his likeness, not one who is not his likeness.’

12. Bâlâki said: ‘The person that is in the echo, on him I meditate.’

Agâtasatru said to him: ‘Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as the second, who never goes away. Whoso meditates on him thus, he gets a second from his second (his wife), he becomes doubled 2.

Bâlâki said: ‘The sound that follows a man, on that I meditate.

Agâtasatru said to him: ‘Do not challenge me on

p. 305

this. I meditate on him as life. Whoso meditates on him thus, neither he himself nor his offspring will faint before the time.’

14. Bâlâki said: ‘The person that is in the shadow, on him I meditate.’

Agâtasatru said to him: ‘Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as death. Whoso meditates on him thus, neither he himself nor his offspring will die before the time.’

15. Bâlâki said: ‘The person that is embodied, on him I meditate.’

Agâtasatru said to him: ‘Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as Lord of creatures. Whose, meditates on him thus, is multiplied in offspring and cattle.’

16. Bâlâki said: ‘The Self which is conscious (prâgña), and by whom he who sleeps here, walks about in sleep, on him I meditate.’

Agâtasatru said to him: ‘Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as Yama the king. Whoso meditates on him thus, everything is subdued for his excellencies.’

17. Bâlâki said: ‘The person that is in the right eye, on him I meditate.’

Agâtasatru said to him: ‘Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as the self of the name, as the self of fire, as the self of splendour. Whoso meditates on him thus, he becomes the self of these.’

18. Bâlâki said The person that is in the left eye, on him I meditate.’

Agâtasatru said to him: ‘Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as the self of the true, as the self of lightning, as the self of light. Whoso

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meditates on him thus, he becomes the self of these.’

19. After this Bâlâki became silent. Agâtasatru said to him: ‘Thus far only (do you know), O Bâlâki?’ ‘Thus far only,’ replied Bâlâki.

Then Agâtasatru said to him: ‘Vainly did you challenge me, saying: ‘Shall I tell you Brahman? O Bâlâki, he who is the maker of those persons (whom you mentioned), he of whom all this is the work, he alone is to be known.’

Thereupon Bâlâki came, carrying fuel in his hand, saying: ‘May I come to you as a pupil?’ Agâtasatru said to him: ‘I deem it improper that a Kshatriya should initiate a Brâhmana. Come, I shall make you know clearly.’ Then taking him by the hand, he went forth. And the two together came to a person who was asleep. And Agâtasatru called him, saying: ‘Thou great one, clad in white raiment, Soma, King 1.’ But he remained lying. Then he pushed him with a stick, and he rose at once. Then said Agâtasatru to him: ‘Bâlâki, where did this person here sleep? Where was he? Whence came he thus back?’ Bâlâki did not know.

20. And Agâtasatru said to him: ‘Where this person here slept, where he was, whence he thus came back, is this: The arteries of the heart called Hita extend from the heart of the person towards the surrounding body. Small as a hair divided a thousand times, they stand full of a thin fluid of various colours, white, black, yellow, red. In these the person is when sleeping he sees no dream.

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Then he becomes one with that prâna alone. Then speech goes to him with all names, the eye with all forms, the car with all sounds, the mind with all thoughts. And when he awakes, then, as from a burning fire, sparks proceed in all directions, thus from that self the prânas (speech, &c.) proceed, each towards its place, from the prânas the gods, from the gods the worlds. And as a razor might be fitted in a razor-case, or as fire in the fire-place (the arani on the altar), even thus this conscious self enters the self of the body (considers the body as himself) to the very hairs and nails. And the other selfs (such as speech, &c.) follow that self, as his people follow the master of the house. And as the master feeds with his people, nay, as his people feed on the master, thus does this conscious self feed with the other selfs, as a master with his people, and the other selfs follow him, as his people follow the master. So long as Indra did not understand that self, the Asuras conquered him. When he understood it, he conquered the Asuras and obtained the pre-eminence among all gods, sovereignty, supremacy. And thus also he who knows this obtains pre-eminence among all beings, sovereignty, supremacy,–yea, he who knows this.


Footnotes

300:1 Prâna, breath or life, has been explained in the preceding chapter. But this prâna is not yet the highest point that has to be reached. Prâna, life, even as united with pragñâ, consciousness, is only a covering of something else, viz. the Self, and this Highest Self has now to be explained.

300:2 The same story is told in the Brihad-âranyaka II, 1 seq., but with important variations.

300:3 I take iti to depend on samspashta, and read satvanmatsyeshu, though the commentary seems to have read so ‘vasan, or sa vasan, for savasan. See Introduction, p. lxxvii.

300:4 The second paragraph forms a kind of table of contents for the discussion which is to follow. I have given instead a fuller table of contents, taken from the Brihad-âranyaka II, as compared with the Kaushîtaki-upanishad in its two texts. The variations of text A are given in small letters. In text B, the table of contents is given at the end of the discussion, in § 18.

302:1 The king means to say that he knows this already, and that he can mention not only the predicates of the person in the sun thus meditated on as Brahman, but also the rewards of such meditation.

302:2 This is properly a predicate of the moon, and used as such in the Brihad-âranyaka-upanishad, in the second paragraph of the dialogue.

303:1 This is not mentioned in the Brihad-âranyaka.

304:1 Instead of anyeshu, the second text, as printed by Professor Cowell, has anv esha.

304:2 This paragraph does not occur in the Brihad-âranyaka.

306:1 See § 3 init.

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